BIO 311C Textbook Notes from Handout 2
BIO 311C Textbook Notes from Handout 2 Bio 311C
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 311C at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Buskirk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Textbook Notes for Handout 2 Ch. 4 4.1 Organic Chemistry is the Study of Carbon Compounds organic chemistry: study of compounds w/ carbon A. Organic Molecules & the Origin of Life on Earth Stanley Miller brought abiotic synthesis of organic compounds into evol. context complex organic molecules could arise spontaneously under early earth conditions 4.2 Carbon Atoms Can Form Diverse Molecules by Bonding to Four Other Atoms A. The Formation of Bonds with Carbon electron configuration gives covalent capability w/ many dif. elements B. Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeleton a. Hydrocarbons hydrocarbons: organic mol. w/ only carbon & hydrogen nonpolar; won’t dissolve in water fats b. Isomers isomers: compounds w/ same # of atoms of same elements but diff. structures & diff. properties structural isomers: differ in covalent arrangement of atoms single or double bond placement cistrans isomers: geometric; differ in spatial arrangement b/c of inflexibility of double bonds single bonds allow free rotation; double doesn’t enantiomers: isomers that are mirror images of each other b/c of asymmetric carbon Concept Check 4.2 1. Can propane ( C H ) form isomers? 3 8 No, because there is only way to form the molecule. There are no double bonds and the hydrogencarbon bonds make the molecule symmetrical. 4.3 A Few Chemical Groups Are Key to Molecular Function properties of organic molecules depend on carbon skeleton & attached chem. groups A. The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life functional groups: chemical groups directly involved in chemical reactions hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, methyl B. ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes adenosine triphosphate (ATP): adenosine attached to three phosphate groups when ATP reacts w/ water inorganic phosphate, ADP, and nrg are the products Ch.5 5.1 Macromolecules Are Polymers, Built from Monomers macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids polymer: long molecule w/ similar/identical building blocks lined w/ covalent bonds monomers: building blocks of polymers A. The Synthesis & Breakdown of Polymers enzymes: specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical rxns dehydration reaction: monomers are connected covalently w/ the loss of a water molecule hydrolysis: polymers disassembled to monomers; reverse of dehydration rxn breakage w/ water hydrogen from water attach to one monomer hydroxyl group attach to adjacent monomer ex. digestion B. The Diversity of Polymers 40 to 50 common monomers small molecules > unique macromolecules Concept Check 5.1 1. What are the four main classes of molecules? Which class does not have polymers? Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids. Lipids 2. How many molecules of water are needed to hydrolyze a polymer of ten monomers? 9 3. If you eat fish, what must occur for the amino acid monomers to be converted to new proteins? Released by hydrolysis and condensation reaction to synthesize new polypeptide chains 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel & Building Material carbohydrates: sugars & polymers of sugars monosaccharides disaccharides= 2 monosacc. w/ covalent bond polysaccharides = joined w/ dehydration rxns A. Sugars monosaccharide: multiple of unit of C H 2 glucose C 6 O12 6 carbonyl group & mult. hydroxyl group disaccharide: 2 monom. w/ glycosidic link glycosidic linkage: covalent bond formed btwn 2 monos. by dehydration rxn succrose lactose maltose B. Polysaccharides polysaccharides: 1001000s of monosaccharides w/ glycosidic linkage a. Storage Polysaccharides starch: polymer of glucose monomers granules w/in plastids (cellular structures; includes chloroplasts); for plants alpha glucose glycogen: polymer of glucose like amylopectin but more branched; for animals alpha glucose depleted w/in a day unless replenished b. Structural Polysaccharides cellulose: major component of cell walls beta glucose never branched in plants, grouped together into microfibirils “insoluble fibers” chitin: carbohydrate used by arthropods to build exoskeletons Concept Check 5.2 1. Write the formula for a monosaccharide that has 3 carbons. C H 3 8 2. Two glucose molecules synthesize to make maltose. Glucose is C6H O12 6 . What is maltose? C 3 O22 11 5.3 Lipids Are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules lipids: no true polymers; not big enough to be macromol.; mix poorly w/ water if at all A. Fats fat: glycerol & fatty acids fatty acid: long carbon skeleton (16 or 18 carbons) w/ carboxyl group @ one end triacylglycerol: 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule saturated fatty acid: w/ hydrogen unsaturated fatty acid: one or more double bonds w/ fewer H atoms on each double bounded carbon -trans fat: hydrogenated unsaturated fat into saturated fats and unsaturated fats with trans double bonds B. Phospholipids -phospholipid: two fatty acids attached to glycerol (not three like fats); third hydroxyl group is joined to phosphate group which has a (-) charge -usually another small charged mol. is linked -ex. Choline -hydrocarbon tails = hydrophobic -phosphate group & attachment = hydrophilic -assemble into bilayers C. Steroids -steroids: lipids w/ carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings -Cholesterol: a type of steroid; in animal cell membrane; precursor for other steroids -ex. sex hormones Concept Check 5.3 1. Compare the structure of a fat with a phospholipid. Fat= a glycerol with three fatty acids (hydrocarbon chain); nonpolar; hydrophobic Phospholipid= glycerol attached to fatty acids; polar head, nonpolar tail; hydrophobic and hydrophilic; phosphate group 2. Why are human sex hormones lipids? Hormones are steroids which are hydrophobic lipids
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