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Psyc 1100, Week 2 Notes

by: Sahar

Psyc 1100, Week 2 Notes PSYC 1100

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About this Document

Principals of psychological research and ethics
General Psychology I
Dr. Susan Holt
Class Notes
Psychology, research methods, ethics




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sahar on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1100 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Susan Holt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Psychology I in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Connecticut.

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Date Created: 09/20/16
Notes  Pure vs. Applied Science o Pure: Seeking knowledge for its own sake (Uni.)  Pursue the knowledge for the sake of knowing o Applied: immediate uses are planned for new information (Country)  Grants are applied for after information is gathered  Role of Theory in Research o Theory: exclamation of the causes of behavior that accounts for existing data,  predicts new observations, & guides further research o Theory not built until data is collected  Must account for the majority of the data  Research Methods o Case Study  In­depth analysis of a single person’s behavior over time  Particularly useful in abnormal psych & therapy o Survey  Many individuals in a representative sample are asked carefully selected  questions  The population to whom I want to generalize my findings  Controlled questions to there is no bias & questions need to lack  ambiguity—everyone need to walk away with  o Naturalistic Observation  Study of behavior as it occurs usually  Research Requirements o Starts with a hypothesis: a statement of expectations about behavior, that can be  tested o Operational definition: a description that specifies exactly how a variable is  measured  Personality survey (ex.). Variable of extrovert? Describe what an extrovert is in your study  ^ so that hypothesis can be tested o Interpret your findings scientifically o Correlation coefficient: statistic that measures the strength and direction of the  relationship between two variables  Strength: what is the range? Between ­1 and +1  Strongest correlation is Perfect  Perfect has a value of ­1 or 1 o If the value of one variable is known, the value of the other  variable can be determined exactly  o Aspire to be perfect but never really happens  Weakest is 0 o Meaning the variable has no correlation   Acceptable correlation is the range between .6 and 1, and ­.6 and  ­1 o There is some relationship  Direction: + variables change in the same direction   One variable goes up or down, and the other goes down  Direction: ­ variables change in opposite direction  Inverse correlation, one goes up, the other goes down o Experimental Method  Only method by which cause­effect relationships may be established Stopped at placebo. Psych Notes  Results o Should be strong enough to be replicable  Probability Level o The probability that the result occurred by chance alone o Statistically significant probability level  P < .05  If there are fewer than 5 instances in 100, the result happened by chance  P < .001 1 chance in 1000  The smaller, the better  Converging evidence o Results from many studies are needed to establish a theory  Ethics o Discomfort/Harm  If possible, researcher must inform the subject prior to the study o Confidentiality   All information gained during the study is private. If information will be  made public, the subject should agree. o Subject Freedom  Subjects are able to decline participation at any time in the research and  must be told of this right o Informed Consent  Subjects must be informed of elements of the study that effect their  decision to participate o Deception  When there is no other way to establish an important fact


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