HIST101 Chapter 5 Notes
HIST101 Chapter 5 Notes HIST 101
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalie Lanik on Tuesday September 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Diane Margolf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization, Modern in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/16
Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 5: Roman Republic 09/16/2016 Mythological foundation of Rome Most sources are late & legendary Livy wrote c. 700 years after the foundation of Rome which is claimed to be April 21, 753 BC The legend of Romulus and Remus Out of fear of the these twin brothers’ rise to power, their uncle threw them into the Tiber River They were found by the shewolf (lupa in Latin) and taken care of before they were found by a shepherd who raised them as his own When the twin eventually discover their identity they return to the banks of Tiber Romulus kills Remus and founds Rome on top of Capitoline Hill Romulus becomes first king of Rome Rome was born through struggle and violence Not enough evidence to support this legend Archeologists found evidence of prehistoric IndoEuropeans called Latins (in Italian peninsula) they settled Latium Italy geography Protected at 3 sides by the sea The alps on the north create a barrier from central Europe Po Valley – a fertile plain in the north helped Italy strive agriculturally Situated on banks of Tiber river – allows for trade and commerce Between the eastern and western Mediterranean Other groups followed Latins and settled in Italy Etruscans established in north of Rome in Etruria Greeks in southern Italy known as Magna Graecia Settled around 750700 BC Cities Syracuse, Tarentum, and Naples were founded Influence on Roman culture Latin language shares similarities with Greek language Romans adopted Greek idea of alphabetic writing system Influence on Rome in agriculture, literature, religion Etruscans Sophisticated urban culture Unclear origin and history C. 650 BC dominant economic and cultural presence in Italy Controlled Rome and Latium at height of power Decline c. 400 BC Invaded by Gauls Language mostly forgotten Impact on Rome o Influenced creation of cities, architecture, religion Chapter 5: Kingdom of Rome First under control of 7 consecutive kings in 250year period The first was Romulus 2. Numa Pompilius (credit for a lot of religious tradition) 3. Tullus Hostilius 4. Ancus Marcius 5. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus 6. Servius Tulius 7. Lucius Tarquinius Sperbus After decline of Etruscan domination monarchy also ended These simultaneous events are attributed in Livy’s The Rape of Lucretia o Lucretia was a noble woman who was respected for her virtue o She was raped by the son of the last king o She commits suicide after telling her family o She becomes the ideal roman woman: she chose death over dishonor o To avenge her death romans drove the king and his family out of Rome o Romans then vowed never to have a king again o Birth of roman republic Roman republic Traditional date of establishment in 509 BC Called the res publica – the public thing Scholars agree the republic was established over a period of time appx. 250 years Political organization Consul 2 men annually elected to serve together as chief magistrate overseeing political and judicial proceedings Imperium – meaning “command” or “authority” this was the power the consul attained Aim of the consul was to prevent monarchies or dynasties from forming Kingship basically rested on 2 men instead of 1 o Nothing changed for lower class Consuls were allowed to veto o Later causes violence and civil unrest Fasces – an axe surrounded by a bundle of rods that symbolized Consular power For serious emergencies a dictator would be appointed for 6 months Senate – aristocrats who advised the consuls o Comprised of about 300 officials elected for life o Could adivse magistrates o BASICALLY had legislative power because the kings always did what they advised Quaestors – assisted in financial affairs Aediles – presided over public festivals and grain supply Praetor – in charge of civil law and maintaining imperium and justice Social hierarchy Society divided into 2 orders (ordo meaning rank) Patricians: small group of elite aristocrats; strictly hereditary Plebeians: General population; term became generalized for poorer classes Assemblies were essential and allowed citizens to participate in political affairs o Men met to decide on legislation, judicial decisions, elections, foreign/domestic policy o Sometimes would discuss slaves and women o Groups would vote on these issues but groups were divided by wealth and social status The Centuriate Assembly was dominated by patricians early on This caused plebeians to form their own assembly that they could actually participate in Forced romans to create a compromise o Through a series of struggles called The Struggle of the Orders o Resulted in the Plebian Assembly The plebian Assembly was allowed to vote on laws but Patricians were not allowed o Could hold office by 287 BC o Elected officials called tribunes – main job to ensure balance between classes The Tribal Assembly – both patricians and plebeians; one of the most important assemblies in Rome After the struggle of the orders The Twelve Tables were formed Chapter 5: Culture of The Republic Roman Family Interaction between men and Gods o Slave and master o Husband and wife o Rich and poor Mos maiorum – “the way of the ancestors” foundation of the roman family system; enforced to ensure peace and prosperity Romans were very conservative didn’t like change Tradition was foundation of value and ethics Paterfamilias – “power of the father” the head of each household. Typically the eldest male who had supreme and executive power over his whole family (including but not limited to: banishing his wife and selling his children) o This power was guaranteed by the twelve tables o He also had power over several clientela (clients) The Twelve Tables – first formalized law code c. 450 BC Women were responsible for raising the children to abide by roman law and tradition o Girls expected to be chaste and devout to gods o Boys supposed to demonstrate masculinity, courage and success in war Roman wives were active in social circles (of course at the side of their husbands) Theater Nothing significant before 3 century BC First cultural movement in republic Livius Andronicus – Greek prisoner of war was brought to Rome in 272 BC o He translated Greek epics into Latin and demand for Latin plays skyrocketed 2 most famous playwrights were Terrence and Plautus o some of the oldest literary works to survive Plautus o Comedic Hellenistic style o Situational comedy (sitcom) o Stock characters (stereotypical characters) o Plays focused on everyday life of romans Terrence o From Carthage; brought to Rome as a slave o Comedic o His intended audience was of higher social status; wealthy aristocrats o Direct linguistic style Literature Marcus Tullius Cicero o Roman prose writer o Famous for rhetorical skills, oration, philosophy, and values o Wrote of divination, friendship, human happiness o His philosophy is modeled in the Stoics o Active in politics o Oratory – ability to persuade o Sophisticated style Sallust o Wrote War with Jugurtha Roman war with African king o War with Catiline – supposed conspiracy in roman politics Conquest of Italy Expansion through war became a major roman theme 396 BC Rome defeats and conquers the southern Etruscans 387 BC Rome invaded by Gauls (eventually paid to leave) 338 BC took over all of Latium territory Samnitwes were biggest threat to romans Some conquered peoples were enslaved others utterly defeated and land confiscated; some granted roman citizenship Opponents became allies and helped with expansion Once Italy was secured overseas conquest was the goal the most powerful empire in the western Mediterranean was at Carthage and romans eventually clashed once they conquered all of Italy Punic Wars Poeni – Latin for Phoenicians 3 separate wars between Carthage and Rome st 1 war: 264 – 241 BC o Rome intervened between two cities in Sicily – caused Carthage to go to war with Rome o Rome built a successful navy during this war o Romans were successful and Carthage had to pay reparations and give Sicily to Rome After the first Punic war Rome established itself as a maritime power nd 2 war: 218 BC o Carthage began conquest on Spain and Rome felt threatened o Hannibal – Carthaginian general; assembled an army in Spain and traveled to Italy o When army arrived in Italy they won several battles and kept going through Italy for 2 decades This caused unrest for Rome o He did not invade Rome but he did cause one of the most devastating roman defeats at the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC o War ended with defeat of Hannibal outside Carthage at Zama by Publius Cornelius Scipio (nickname “Africanus” ) o After defeat Carthage had to pay another fine and cede all territory o North Africa was divided into “client kingdoms “of Rome o Hannibal was admired by romans because of his success o Cartho delendaest – “Carthage must be destroyed” 3 war declared by the senate in 149 BC o Carthage was seized and people sold to slavery o City destroyed in 146 BC Chapter 5: Rome and The Hellenistic Kingdoms Greek poleis fell to Rome in 146 BC Army o Conquered people and territory turned into a “roman Confederacy” o Roman army divided into maniples: formation developed from phalanx; blocks of tiers of men—helped romans secure power in Mediterranean th o By 4 c. Rome had 4 legions with c. 5,000 men each o Each maniple divided into 3 tiers o Greaves: breastplates and shin guards used in battle Tier 1: skirmishers who couldn’t afford armor (this was before the state provided pay and equipment for army) Tier 2: hastati: spearmen who were the youngest recruits Tier 3: Principes: basically the same weapons as the hastate but more seasoned in battle Tier 4: Triarii: the oldest, most wealthy and most experienced men; they filled any gaps from the tier 1 o Most battles didn’t really need tier 4 people because tier 1 soldiers were mostly successful o A mans position in the army depended on wealth o In the early republic only the wealthy and privileged men were allowed to fight for the roman army The Decline of the Roman Republic o Internal strife o Senate was running the republic through custom (mos maiorum) o The rich ruled Rome because the senate was mostly rich guys This group of aristocrats was called the nobiles (nobles) These families dominated politics o Aristocratic families were divided politically Optimates – “best men” relied on tradition as an approach to politics Populares – “men of the people” relied on tribunes or Plebeian Assemblies o Division between rich and poor Equestrians – men who served in the cavalry of the roman army Aristocrats and equestrians formed a minority of the population but controlled most of the politics The economic gap between the classes caused internal strife o 133 – 121 BC Gracchi brothers: when the republic began to decline o ended with assassination of Julius Caesar 44 BC The Gracchi – The beginning of the end o Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus (plural Gracchi) o These brothers had the interest of plebeians o Tiberius was elected tribune of the plebs Presided over plebian assembly in 133 BC Proposed legislation to redistribute farmers land (senators did not like this) Tried to pass his legislation through the tribune instead of the senate! The senate and aristocrats ended up beating Tiberius to death because they thought he was trying to climb his way to dictatorship BUT HIS LAND BILL WAS PASSED o 10 years later Gaius was elected into the tribune of plebs He wanted more rights for the lower classes Enfranchisement of all Italian allied states AND granting full citizenship to them Tiberius motivated a change in rules of office: reelection and limited tenure of office This challenged the status of the elite AND increased army membership Gaius and about 3,000 of his supporters were murdered by senate and aristocrats Marius and Sulla – Military Dynasts o The use of violence to settle political disputes was successful and so continued o Been successful in campaign against King Jugurtha in Numidia o Became a prominent general o Elected consul o Ran for a second time and eventually held consul 7 times o He removed the requirement that a man must own land to participate in the military This allowed even the poorest of men to join the military o Men were able to profit from war, rich men turned it into a career o Armies became loyal to military commanders (because that was who paid them) o Lucius Cornelius Sulla During the social war (91 – 88 BC) made a military career for himself Rome vs. allies in Italy Sulla was a primary, military general Sulla raised 5 legions and marched on Rome—this was seen as an act of war Then marius and troops marched Rome too Sulla was appointed dictator and then marius died Sulla issued “proscriptions” (meaning the “writing above”) that condemned his opposition to death Quasilegal method—sulla killed his enemies and filled senate with loyal recruits Sulla did not take the role of a dictator but he retired instead Pompey and Caesar – Civil War o Sullas power increased power of senate and decreased power of plebs o New military dynasts tried to reestablish the plebs power o Pompeius Magnus (Pompey) Won military victories under sulla o Gaius Julius Caesar (Caesar) Had family connections (marius was uncle) Appealed to the people through populist reforms o Both of these men created an alliance along with Marcus Junius Crassus (defeated Spartacus) This secret alliance was called the First Triumvirate Pompey and Crassus granted consulships Caesar granted command in Gaul for 5 years Eventually other members granted themselves command of other areas The alliance eventually turned to rivalry when there were only 2 members left o Caesar’s conquest in Gaul o Very popular due to propaganda (Gallic Wars) o Marched on Rome o His crossing of the Rubicon (49 BC) was a symbol of a point of no return – initiating a civil war The end of the Republic o Pompey fled to Greece to avoid battle in Italy o Caesar and pompey met a year later t the Battle of Pharsalus in Greece o Pompey fled to Egypt o Ptolemaic kings constituents killed pompey (chopped off his head and threw him into the ocean) o Caesar was rewarded dictatorship after returning to Rome (47 BC) o 3 years later given the title dictator perpetuo – “dictator for life” o Enacted political reforms o Increased senate from 300 to 900 o Established colonies and granted land to followers o Reformed the calendar Instituted a leap year o Building projects o Military campaigns o Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators HE WAS STABBED 23 TIMES o These senators called themselves the Liberatores who strived to restore the republic – but his death actually led to the beginning of an empire ▯ ▯
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