Week 1 (9/2) Lecture Notes: Farming
Week 1 (9/2) Lecture Notes: Farming PLSC101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Dasilva on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLSC101 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Bill Phillips in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Crop Science in Plant Science at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Week 1: 9/2- Friday Farming Lecture Notes Note Topics @ a Glance: definition, stats, econ., policy, land grants, USDA, farm bill, Agribusinesses Farming A. What is a farm? 1. land used for growing crops and raising livestock; practice stewardship of land and nature 2. USDA $1000 worth of products sold or bought B. What is a farmer? 1. a person who operates a farm or cultivates land; raises crops and animals 2. USDA “ person who runs the farms; makes day to day decision; could be owner or worker of farm” C. Top four crops produced in the US 1. corn 2. soybean 3. wheat 4. hay (various) D. Livestock 1. beef & dairy cattle 2. sheep 3. goats * livestock corn, soybean, & hay *A lot of what MD grow goes to chickens for chicken production E. Stats 1. Average size of a farm is 44 acres 2. approx. 1% of the population is in farming 3. 178 million has of cropland 4. 91% of farms are classified as "small farms" (<$250,000 gross income) a. 60% of these are "very small farms" (<$10,000 gross income) b. account for 23% of agricultural production 5. Many work offfarm jobs 6. on average, each farmer produces enough food and fiber for 150 people 7. Americans pay approx. 10% of their income on food Economics of Farming 1. 19 cents of each dollar goes to the farm operation 2. 38.5 cents of each dollar goes to labor *a lot of farming is still hand labor 3. Food and fiber industry= $150 trillion a. agribusiness all of the sectors responsible for product production to delivery 4. Jobs a. 23 million b. 2.3 million directly involved in farming c. there are many jobs related to farming Week 1: 9/2- Friday Farming Lecture Notes Note Topics @ a Glance: definition, stats, econ., policy, land grants, USDA, farm bill, Agribusinesses 5. Agriculture imports/exports a. imports $80 billion (ex. grains and feeds, fruits, vegetables... ) b. exports $115 billion (ex. soybean, wheat, corn...) Farm Policy 1. stabilizing prices of crops and livestock using insurance and payments 2. preventing commodity surpluses 3. conserving and protecting the environment 4. agricultural institutions (ex USDA, Land Grant Universities) 5. Farm Bill (aka, food, conservation, and Energy Act) Land Grant Universities 1. Morrill Act established these institutions to support agricultural education for all persons 2. Provides land and money to establish these institutions of agricultural and mechanical learning 3. Land grant institutions shares its research, educational, cultural, and technological strengths. 4. Collaborates with state, federal, private, and nonprofit partners to promote economic development and improve quality of life USDA United States Department of Agriculture 1. National leader food, agriculture, and natural resources 2. Seven Missions a. Foreign ag services, food and nutrition, marketing and regulatory, natural resources, research and education, rural; development, food safety and inspection Farm Bill 1. Money to support farm programs and the USDA 2. Focused on low food prices 3. Income support for farmers 4. Soil Conservation 5. Established and maintains a food stamp and food distribution programs 6. Money comes from congressional appropriations 7. All groups and citizens have a say in the legislation 8. New farm bill every 5 years 9. Loans and programs designed to assist farmers and those who want to farm Farming Industries or Agribusinesses 1. Farm or Ranch a. Raw materials> commodity b. Example> seed, soil, fertilizer, pesticides, water, sunlight> ear of corn! 2. Inputs and Services a. Many different businesses (large and small) supply seed, fertilizer, equipment b. Other businesses that farmers need banks, consultants, grain elevators, stockyards, shipping 3. Processors a. Convert the commodities from the farm into products that can be sold to consumers wheat to flour o Wheat to flour o Corn to corn starch o Barley to malt Week 1: 9/2- Friday Farming Lecture Notes Note Topics @ a Glance: definition, stats, econ., policy, land grants, USDA, farm bill, Agribusinesses b. Create processed products flour to bread o Wheat flour to bread o Corn starch to high fructose corn syrup o Malt to bear 4. Marketers o Wholesale and retail Agribusiness Vertical Integration 1.A business model whereby a company controls several levels of production and distribution 2. companies such as ADM, Cargill, and ConAgra Foods
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