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KIN321 Week 1 Class Notes (8/22-8/26)

by: askcch

KIN321 Week 1 Class Notes (8/22-8/26) 321

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > 321 > KIN321 Week 1 Class Notes 8 22 8 26
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These notes cover Lecture 1 Bioenergetics & Calorimetry and Lecture 2 Digestion & Absorption
Introduction to Systemic Exercise Physiology
Dr. Kevin Jacobs
Class Notes
Kinesiology, Systemetic, Physiology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by askcch on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 321 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Kevin Jacobs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Systemic Exercise Physiology in Kinesiology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
KIN321   Class     otes     eek      (8/22­8/26)  ________________________________________________________________________________  From   revio   ectio s   ­ N/A  ________________________________________________________________________________  Lecture 1 Bioenergetics and Calorimetry   ● Thermodynamics = study of energy exchange in physical science.   ○ 1800s ➙ ability to predict work output of steam engines.   ● Bioenergetics = study of the exchange of energy in the biological world.  ● 1st Law of Thermodynamics ➙ Energy can be neither created nor  destroyed, but only converted from one form to another.  ● 2nd Law of Thermodynamics ➙ The exchange of energy is imperfect  and some energy will escape.   ○ Loss of heat  ● ATP is used for many functions including:   ○ Chemical work ➙ driving reactions that are not spontaneous  ○ Transport ➙ movement of substances against concentration  gradients (Na+ - K+ pump)  ○ Mechanical work ➙ “crossbridge cycling”   ● [ATP] changes very little even during intense exercise.   ● Metabolism is sum of all energy transformations within an organism.   ○ Impossible to measure ➙ ∴ metabolism is the rate of heat  production.  ● Calorimetry is measurement of heat to determine metabolic rate.  ○ Direct calorimetry involves the measurement of heat production.   ■ Bomb Calorimeter determines caloric content of food   ■ Room Calorimeter determines heat production (closed room  measuring temp change)  ○ Indirect calorimetry involves the measurement of oxygen  consumption    ● Caloric Equivalents of Food    ○ Protein’s energy density is lower inside the body than outside the  body because human can’t use nitrogen (in proteins) as energy   ○ Protein is a building block for muscle, hence if using protein as fuel  it breaks them down   ○ Carb is prefered energy source during exercise as it gives more  kcal/L of O2 consumption  ● V co2 O2ratio (R ratio)  ○ Range 0.7~1.0  ○ This number is determined because of the structures of protein  and fat      ____________________________________________________________  Lecture 2 Digestion & Absorption   ● Functions of food  1. Energy   2. Growth & Development  3. Regulation of metabolism (how the body uses fuels)  ● Carbohydrates   ○ Not good optimal energy to be stored because of low caloric  density   ○ Monosaccharides, Disaccharides,  Oligosaccharides/Polysaccharides   ■ Only fructose, glucose, and galactose can be absorbed  ■ Mono and Disaccharides are “simple sugar”  ● Lipids   ○ Simple: Triglycerides,   ○ Compound: Phospholipids, Lipoproteins, Chylomicrons (how  triglycerides appear in blood)  ○ Derived (body can produce): Cholesterol   ○ No double bond = saturated (tend to be solid in room temperature  e.g. butter)  ○ One double bond = monounsaturated   ○ More double bond = polyunsaturated   ○ Trans fat→ “partially hydrogenated” as code name  ■ ^ shelf life  ■ Bad, increases LDL-C and lowers HDL-C  ● Protein  ○ Combination of up to 20 dierent amino acids via peptide bonds.   ■ C, H, amino group (Nitrogen), carboxylic acid group, and side  chain.  ● Why GI function is important to exercise?  ○ Dehydration, Hyperthermia, and CHO depletions are common  causes of fatigue during prolonged exercise  ● Small intestine: absorbs macro nutrients, water, and electrolytes   ○ Glucose and Amino Acids absorbed go into the Liver before they  enter the circulation   ● Large intestine: absorbs water and electrolytes ONLY  ● Gastric Emptying:  ○ Stomach is a holding tank-> only a small amounts of alcohol and  vitamin B12 is absorbed here  ○ Stomach’s elasticity (rebound eect) pushes food into small  intestine, therefore, gastric emptying poses limiting factor for  absorption   ○ how to measure gastric emptying?   ■ ingest uid with dye, put tube into the stomach through GI to  extract samples to see how much does the dye go away   ● Gastric emptying is controlled to ensure delivery of water and  solute at rate slightly less than intestine’s absorptive capacity   ● Factors inuencing gastric emptying:   ○ Volume ➙ ↑ V = ↑ emptying rate.   ○ Energy content ➙ ↑ energy = ↓ emptying rate.   ■ < 6-8% CHO, 6-8 g CH O/2 recommended.   ○ Osmolality ➙ ↑ osmolality = ↓ emptying rate.   ■ Glucose polymers   ○ Exercise ➙ > 70-75% VO2max ↓ emptying rate.   ○ Dehydration ➙ ↓ emptying rate.   ○ Optimal uid/CHO replacement ➙ 30-60 g CHO/hour in a  6-8% solution ingested at a rate of 600-1200 ml/hour.  ● 1.4g of CHO/min is the max avg rate for CHO to be absorbed  ○ So don’t take more than ~70g of CHO per hour  ● Intestinal Digestion:  ○ The majority of CHO digestion happens in the small intestine   ○ The majority of FAT digestion happens in the small intestine   ■ Bile breaks down large fat droplets into smaller pieces for  pancreatic lipase to further break down (breaks fat into FA,  diacytlglycerols, and monoacytlglycerols)  ○ The majority of PROTEIN digestion happens in the stomach  ■ and it also extend into the intestinal epithelial cells  ● Intestinal Absorption:  ○ Small intestine divided into:  ■ Duodenum  ■ Jejunum  ■ Ileum  ● Surface area of small intestine is increased up to 600 fold by:  ○ Circular folds (x3)  ○ Villi (x10)  ○ Brush border (x3)  ● The time from ingestion to blood appearance for:  ○ glucose ~15min  ○ fat ~2-4hrs  CHO:  ● Glucose and galactose are actively transported by sodium- and  glucose-linked transporter molecule (SGLT-1)  ○ SGLT-1: glucose, galactose, sodium, and water (like GLUT-4)  ● Fructose moves by facilitated GLUT-5 transporter   ● goes into the liver  LIPIDS:  ● ingested long chained fat turns into chylomicrons in the epithelial cells,  then into the lymph system, then into bloods   PROTEINS:   ● active transport, go into the liver  H 2:  ● Water always moves to where it has more particles, to dilute the uid  ● Majority are absorbed in the small intestine (85%)  ● Water absorption can occur passively via osmosis or actively via SGLT-1.   ○ SGLT-1 mediated water absorption may account for up to 70% of  total water absorption.                  


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