Can We Trust Our Perception Part 4
Can We Trust Our Perception Part 4 PSYCH 1101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University taught by Pizarro, D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Can We Trust Our Perception (Part 4) ● Is our perception influenced by motivations, desires, and beliefs? OR: How much does cognition influence Perception? ○ Cognition your personal thoughts, feelings, desires influencing what you see ○ Influences how you see the world ● Cognition v Perception ○ Poor and rich kids perception of the size of money ○ Top down effects: When things are deeply influenced by thoughts and desires ○ Deeper problem occurs when conflicting evidence happens due to visual illusions ■ “Cognition does not affect Perception” Firestone & Scholl ○ There are clear cases where we can’t help but see something no matter how much you think differently ○ No real control of perception ● Good reasons to Doubt that Cognition influences Perception ● Assessing the “New Look” ○ A movement in psychology that argues desires and motives infused perception: ■ Poor children see coins as larger ○ New look research received many criticism ■ Poor children less familiar with coins ○ Mixed results ■ Measurements were not of actual perception, but other cognitive processes ○ Memory: infused with wants and distortions that will influence what we want to see ○ Judgement: ○ Attentional shifts 1. Motivated Perception of Ambiguous Figures a. Balcetis and Dunning (2006) (Memory) i. Taste test study for a desirable food or undesirable foods ii. Participants are informed they will be assigned to each condition whether or not they see a farm animal/ sea animal iii. Eye tracking shows where you look (Form of measurement) iv. Use the first eye movement in order to get rid of assumptions that they could lie in order to receive an incentive 2. Motivational Perception of “rival” Binocular Images (Memory) a. One eye would see a 4 and the other eye would see an H b. Flash quickly= lack of integration c. Balcetis, Dunning, and Grannot (2010) i. Subjects presented binocular images that were either letters or numbers ii. Images presented at 300 ms d. More Likely to See “Winning” Category” 3. Motivational Perception of distance (Judgement) a. Balcetis and Dunning (2010) i. Random assigned ii. Are desirable things perceived to be closer? iii. Manipulated how thirsty participants were 1. Thirsty: eat bowl of pretzels (40% of daily sodium) 2. Quenched: drank to 4 8oz glass of water iv. Conclusion: People who were thirsty said the cup was a lot closer to them than it really is (Actual distance was 36 in, thirsty people average: 28 in) 4. Bean bag Toss: Throwing Instead of Reporting an Estimate (Judgement) a. Game where participants throw small bean bags to reach as close to the prize (gift card) as possible b. Conclusion: The throwing is a measure of how much the participant believes they could win the gift card c. Conclusion: Used gift: overshoot because it has no value , Valuable gift: undershoot to be close as possible due to the value 5. How Far Away is the $100 Bill (55 inches away) a. Conclude: Real Bill: Participants measure under 50 inches when they want them, when it is a fake dollar, estimate to be farther away over 55 inches 6. PUT THIS ALL TOGETHER: Doing these studies that are methodically more rigorous is demonstrating the same thing that cognition influences perception 7. Motivated Perception of Steepness: a. Steepness of a hill based on physical activity b. Conclusion: If you have done rigorous physical activity, one will perceive the hill to be steeper c. Fatigue Influencing Steepness i. Joggers caught before or after their run ii. Joggers after run: more steep of hill (inflating the steepness of the hill) iii. Before: less steep of a hill iv. Or wearing a backpack estimating the Steepness of the Hill 8. Professors answer: They are measure attention, judgement but it is not the same when one asking the question; Demand characteristic are brought into the system a. If you tell people you just need help, the results are completely different b. The Demand characteristic erases the need for participants to think about the why and thus influencing their answer 9. NO matter how much you know and what you want, your perception is clearly influenced by your judgement within the cognitive (beliefs, desires, and internal thoughts)
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