ANTH 1010 – Maasai Women, Language, & Communication
ANTH 1010 – Maasai Women, Language, & Communication ANTH 1010 -090
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ANTH 1010 -090
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1010 -090 at University of Utah taught by Chunfen Zhou in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
ANTH 1010 – Maasai Women, Language, & Communication Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Four Subsistence Types Foraging: hunting and gathering wild plants and animals Pastoralism: herding large domesticated animals Horticulture: small-scale, low intensity farming Intensive agriculture: large-scale, intensive farming Foraging Most ancient of human subsistence patterns Do not establish permanent year-round settlements Major variations Pedestrian: diversified hunting and gathering on foot Equestrian: concentrating on hunting large mammals from horseback Aquatic: concentrating on fish and/or marine mammal hunting usually from boats Pastoralism Pastoral nomads: follow a seasonal migratory pattern that can very from year to year. Transhumance pastoralists: follow a cyclical pattern of migrations that usually take them to cool highland valleys in the summer and warmer lowland valleys in the winter. Patrilineal descent Polygamy is a common marriage pattern Horticulture Part-time planting and tending of domesticated food plants Small domesticated animals are often raised for food and prestige Shifting pattern of field use Slash and burn technique to clear wild vegetarian Well suited to humid, tropical conditions Intensive Agriculture Primary subsistence pattern of large-scale, populous societies Horticulture --> Intensive agriculture Foraging < Pastoralism *Why did the Mukogodo become Maasai? Ethnic tidying Preserve British land interests for white settlers Place "distinct" groups onto unique pieces of land (reserves) Increased contact between ethnic groups Hypogyny Females marry up Beehives to livestock *Why the switch to pastoralism? Perspective Dependent Mukogodo are poor --> less livestock Mukogodo are considered lower status by Maasai because of lack of formality with rules (i.e. il-torrobo, ceremonial frugalness, less gerontocracy, language use). Norms vs. Behaviors Boys are the preferred sex normatively (Maasai) Girls more likely to visit doctors, held and nursed more, have better growth Trivers-Willard Hypothesis: Parents (mostly mothers) will favor the sex that provide the greatest return on investment Biased sex ratio at birth Bias in treatment When in "good" condition favor boys (boys can make more babies than girls - polygamy) When in "bad" condition favor girls (males are more fragile than females) Ethnography of Speech The study of cultural and sub-cultural patterns of speech variation in different social contexts Status Affects Language Use Elites more homogenous in spoken language Conform to idealized rules of language Lower classes more heterogeneous in spoken language Labeled dialect Maasai and Samburu Formal/reserved attitudes Mukogodo Relaxed/informal attitude With cultural contact, people… Code switch (use language differently in different contexts) Shift to the language of the more powerful (language is lost) Create pidgin language All humans have the ability to learn language Universal grammar Basic set of principles, rules, and conditions that form the foundation of all languages Children apply this unconsciously to the sounds they hear 1-6 years Interesting properties of human language Productivity (infinite number of words or sentences can be created through sound combinations) Displacement (we can talk about the past and future, not just the present) Phonology: sound system of a language Phone Smallest identifiable unit of sound made by humans >100 phones identified English approx. 44 phonemes Morphology: system for creating ideas/words from sounds Morpheme Smallest unit of language that has meaning Semantics: system relating to words to meanings Lexicon (total stock of words in a language) Syntax: system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences E.g. English uses subject, verb, object, etc. Comparative Linguistics: science of documenting relationships between languages and grouping them into families. Approx. 6800 spoken languages 50% are endangered 1/3 spoken by fewer than 1000 people Core Vocabulary List of 100-200 meanings found in all languages Glottochronology Statistical technique used to estimate the date of language separation Linguistic Diversity More than 50% of the world's languages are spoken in 8 countries India, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon Linguistic diversity "hot spots" Non-verbal Communication Artifacts - communication via clothing, tattoos, piercings Haptics - study of touch Contact societies Non-contact societies Chronemics - study of different ways societies use/understand time M-time (monochronic) - time is inflexible and lives are organized by scheduling P-time (polychronic) - time flexible, fluid, and social interactions not expected to proceed like clock Proxemics - study of cultural use of space How close should two people be when talking? Kinesics
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