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ANTH 1010 – Maasai Women, Language, & Communication

by: Jazmine Beckstrand

ANTH 1010 – Maasai Women, Language, & Communication ANTH 1010 -090

Marketplace > University of Utah > ANTH 1010 -090 > ANTH 1010 Maasai Women Language Communication
Jazmine Beckstrand
The U
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture material and assigned readings for the fourth week of class.
Culture & Human Experience
Chunfen Zhou
Class Notes
Maasai, Culture, Anthropology, evolution, Language, communication
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jazmine Beckstrand on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1010 -090 at University of Utah taught by Chunfen Zhou in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
ANTH 1010 – Maasai Women, Language, & Communication Definitions Key Concepts Locations * = on exam Four Subsistence Types  Foraging: hunting and gathering wild plants and animals  Pastoralism: herding large domesticated animals  Horticulture: small-scale, low intensity farming  Intensive agriculture: large-scale, intensive farming Foraging  Most ancient of human subsistence patterns  Do not establish permanent year-round settlements  Major variations  Pedestrian: diversified hunting and gathering on foot  Equestrian: concentrating on hunting large mammals from horseback  Aquatic: concentrating on fish and/or marine mammal hunting usually from boats Pastoralism  Pastoral nomads: follow a seasonal migratory pattern that can very from year to year.  Transhumance pastoralists: follow a cyclical pattern of migrations that usually take them to cool highland valleys in the summer and warmer lowland valleys in the winter.  Patrilineal descent  Polygamy is a common marriage pattern Horticulture  Part-time planting and tending of domesticated food plants  Small domesticated animals are often raised for food and prestige  Shifting pattern of field use  Slash and burn technique to clear wild vegetarian  Well suited to humid, tropical conditions Intensive Agriculture  Primary subsistence pattern of large-scale, populous societies Horticulture --> Intensive agriculture Foraging < Pastoralism *Why did the Mukogodo become Maasai?  Ethnic tidying  Preserve British land interests for white settlers  Place "distinct" groups onto unique pieces of land (reserves)  Increased contact between ethnic groups  Hypogyny  Females marry up  Beehives to livestock *Why the switch to pastoralism? Perspective Dependent  Mukogodo are poor --> less livestock  Mukogodo are considered lower status by Maasai because of lack of formality with rules (i.e. il-torrobo, ceremonial frugalness, less gerontocracy, language use). Norms vs. Behaviors  Boys are the preferred sex normatively (Maasai)  Girls more likely to visit doctors, held and nursed more, have better growth Trivers-Willard Hypothesis: Parents (mostly mothers) will favor the sex that provide the greatest return on investment  Biased sex ratio at birth  Bias in treatment  When in "good" condition favor boys (boys can make more babies than girls - polygamy)  When in "bad" condition favor girls (males are more fragile than females) Ethnography of Speech  The study of cultural and sub-cultural patterns of speech variation in different social contexts Status Affects Language Use  Elites more homogenous in spoken language  Conform to idealized rules of language  Lower classes more heterogeneous in spoken language  Labeled dialect  Maasai and Samburu  Formal/reserved attitudes  Mukogodo  Relaxed/informal attitude  With cultural contact, people…  Code switch (use language differently in different contexts)  Shift to the language of the more powerful (language is lost)  Create pidgin language All humans have the ability to learn language  Universal grammar  Basic set of principles, rules, and conditions that form the foundation of all languages  Children apply this unconsciously to the sounds they hear  1-6 years  Interesting properties of human language  Productivity (infinite number of words or sentences can be created through sound combinations)  Displacement (we can talk about the past and future, not just the present) Phonology: sound system of a language  Phone  Smallest identifiable unit of sound made by humans  >100 phones identified  English approx. 44 phonemes Morphology: system for creating ideas/words from sounds  Morpheme  Smallest unit of language that has meaning Semantics: system relating to words to meanings  Lexicon (total stock of words in a language) Syntax: system of rules for combining words into meaningful sentences  E.g. English uses subject, verb, object, etc. Comparative Linguistics: science of documenting relationships between languages and grouping them into families.  Approx. 6800 spoken languages  50% are endangered  1/3 spoken by fewer than 1000 people  Core Vocabulary  List of 100-200 meanings found in all languages  Glottochronology  Statistical technique used to estimate the date of language separation Linguistic Diversity  More than 50% of the world's languages are spoken in 8 countries  India, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon  Linguistic diversity "hot spots" Non-verbal Communication  Artifacts - communication via clothing, tattoos, piercings  Haptics - study of touch  Contact societies  Non-contact societies  Chronemics - study of different ways societies use/understand time  M-time (monochronic) - time is inflexible and lives are organized by scheduling  P-time (polychronic) - time flexible, fluid, and social interactions not expected to proceed like clock  Proxemics - study of cultural use of space  How close should two people be when talking? Kinesics 


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