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History of East Asia (History 104) Week 1-3 Notes

by: Konnor Damery

History of East Asia (History 104) Week 1-3 Notes His 104A02

Marketplace > Illinois State University > History > His 104A02 > History of East Asia History 104 Week 1 3 Notes
Konnor Damery
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These notes cover all material thus far in the class over Pre- Modern China. Topics range from geography, to the establishment of early China, to the political and social ideologies, to the role of...
History of East Asia
Larissa Kennedy
Class Notes
geography, history, premodern, China, Buddhism, Confucianism, nirvana, Daoism, Legalism




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Konnor Damery on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to His 104A02 at Illinois State University taught by Larissa Kennedy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see History of East Asia in History at Illinois State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
His 104 East Asia lecture notes  Pre Modern China    Day one: 8­24­16    Geography     A. Main Features  1. isolation  2. yellow River­ north  a. Silt gives mineral rich soil and yellow color  i. Silt becomes air born = ​Loess  ii. Silt settles to bottom raising water level and causing floods  b. Not navigable because of shallowness  c. Major course shifts caused by mass flooding   i. Kills villages  ii. Led to BOXER uprising  3. Yangzi River­ south  4. Outside central China    1. Isolation  a. Chariots in China show up fully formed [no development] ­ cross cultural  exchange  b. Yellow [​Huanghe] ​  and Yangtze [C​ hang Jiang] = ​ isolation  c. Most civilizations pop up on yellow river in flood plane as opposed to Yangze in  south  2. Development  a. Social­People had to work together to control river floods for habitable land  b. Technological­ inventions created to build walls, irrigate fields, etc.  c. Political­ communities formed to get shit done and handle affairs  3. Yellow River  a. Intentional flooding to stop Japanese army [killed millions of innocent civilians]  b. Grew wheat, Millet, and soybeans  c. DROUGHT is also a problem  4. Yangze River  a. Twice as much rainfall= navigable passages  b. Grew rice 2 times a year  c. No silt = used shit to fertilize  d. 3 Gorges Hydroelectric Dams ~2006  i. Control floods and create energy  ii. Had to relocate people/ destroyed habitual and forest land  5. Farmers vs Herders  a. Herders from central move into East Asia in River valley  b. Worshipped different gods  Prehistory  1. Neolithic cultures ­ Yellow River communities  a. Yangshao [4800 BCE]­  i.  notable for decorated pots and fortune telling by reading cracked bones!!!  ~ related to oracle bone divination  b. Longshan [2500]­ primitive/ thinner Pottery    i. Walls originally cemented with rocks mud twigs etc.  ii. Ming dynasty started using bricks ~ Great Wall of china  2. Non River civilization  a. Sanxingdui   i. Metal workers who didn't write  ii.  Gods???                                                                    Day Two­ 8/26/16   Vocab:    Confucianism​­ new ideology  Shamans​­ communicated with the dead    First Historical Dynasty  I. Shang [1766­1040 BCE]  1. Metalworking  a) Concerned about their borders being invaded­ began making  weapons  2. Oracle Bones: proof of the Shang dynasty  a) Earliest known form of writing  b) Kings asking dead ancestors questions [divination]  c) Used tortoise shells or scapulae of large mammals  (1) Heated bones til they crack = response  3. Society  a) Distinct hierarchy  (1) Evident with burials [kings=tombs/ common peepo tossed  in the dirt]  b) Political organization  (1) Labor was used to fulfill debts  c) Women  (1) Not rulers, biased toward men/ sons  (2) Role before Confucianism is unclear    ​ I. Western Z ​ hou Dynasty [1027­770 BCE]  A. Dynasty of conquest   1. Conquered Shang  B. Mandate of Heaven   1. Heaven granted the ruler and descendants the right to rule as long as  they ruled in the best interest of the people  2. Heaven was impersonal [over everyone]  3. Allowed them to expand their state  4. Heaven communicates through omens (nature)  Qin:​  Emperor= son of heaven              Day Three­ 8/29/16    P46­47 for reading assignment    Vocabulary:  ​ Accretion­ layered texts by generation      Pre­Modern China: philosophical foundations          ​ b) Ruler can only hold the mandate if he is accepted by his people  who have the right to rebel  2. Xunzi  a) Ritualist for order among men not for heaven  (1) “It is gonna rain no matter what”  III. Daoism  A. Political philosophy ­ no specific founder   1. Came from all over, geographically  2. Often came from differing thoughts from Confucianism   3. Rejected learning and wanted to go back to primitivism   a) Daodejing or The Laozi  b) The Zhuangzi   4. Relativity, emptiness, and inaction  a) Value is un definable without opposites  b) Emptiness creates usefulness  c) Inaction­ thing occur naturally  (1) Don't seek power, power will find you  5. Yin­Yang symbol (balance) associated with this movement, but does not  actually come from it   IV. Legalism  A. Unified China as one state  B. governed in the present: did not study history and govern based on it  C. Clearly defined rewards and punishments to keep the people in line  1. Cannot rely on people to be “good”  D. Used harsh law to unify power to get stuff done  1. Public work projects such as walls, tombs, water canals  V. Han Dynasty  A. Combination of Confucianism and legalism  VI. Qing Dynasty                                    Day Five: 9­7­16    Vocabulary:  8­fold path​: l​ eading an ethical life  Sutra­ ​Buddhist scripture  Pantheon­​ temple of worship  Deities­  ​ The divine, god or goddess  Sects­ ​difference sectors of a religion  Celibacy­ t ​ o not marry or have children    1. Buddhism in China (originated from India)  a. Nirvana, karma, reincarnation, sutra  b. Arrived at end of Han dynasty  c. Religion based on Noble truths  i. Life is painful  ii. Pain is caused by desire  iii. Pain is able to be conquered  iv. Follow 8­fold path (ethical life)  d. Mahayana Buddhism­ adaptable   i. As they moved into new territory they would blend existing religions w/  Buddhism  1. Ex. Tibetan Buddhism  ii. Bodhisattva­ someone who achieves enlightenment yet chooses to be  reincarnated to endure more suffering to help someone else (Saint)  1. Chan (zen)  2. Pure land  a. Heaven ­­­> Nirvana  iii. Signification and acceptance   1. Complimentary opposite of Confucianism  a. Sinification­ making other cultures more chinese  b. Institution  i. Monasticism  c. Translation  i. Huge body of text translated in Chinese too make  accessible and familiar   ii. Text changed meaning in translation  iv. Decline  1. China lost revenue due to tax free religious land holds   2. Growing political and social power   a. Government limits institutions and began taxing  b. Refocus attention on Confucianism and government    2. Confucian Education and the Exam system   a. Purpose  i. Meritocracy­ job based on skills that they possess (merit)  1. Ideal person for each job  2. Job advancement achievable through study of Confucianism and  receival of high marks by higher officials   ii. Hereditary emperor   1. Patrilineal succession of family in power  b. Change of Time  i. Han 206­ 220 CE  ii. Sui 589­618 CE  iii. Tang 618­907 CE  iv. Song 960­1279 CE  v. Yuan 1279­1368 CE  vi. Ming 1368­ 1644 CE  vii. Qing 1644­ 1912 CE                                                          9­16­2016    Patrilineal­ need sons to carry on family line  Patrilocal­ when they marry, couple move into husbands house  Patriarchal­   Geomancy­ reading geographical birthplace to fortune tell marriage compatibility  Dowry­ wife’s personal property  Natal­ family born into (birth family)    1. Women in Confucian Society  a. Marriage  i. Arranged for mutual benefit of both families  ii. New Family hierarchies and relationships  1. Status depends on husbands birth order and ability to birth sons  iii. Women bring dowry and join husband’s family  iv. Ritual included man and woman only  b. Concubines   i. Women brought into family at a lower status than wife  1. Sold to men’s family with the job of producing sons  c. Roles and Responsibilities  i. Taking care of in­laws  1. Wake up, put to bed, cook  ii. Understanding status in family  1. Don't sleep in/ carry out duties  2. Remonstrate husband  iii. Teach children  iv. Keep household clean tidy   


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