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BIOL1107: Metabolism and Energy

by: Brittany Ariana Borzillo

BIOL1107: Metabolism and Energy BIOL 1107

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Biology > BIOL 1107 > BIOL1107 Metabolism and Energy
Brittany Ariana Borzillo
GPA 3.7

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final notes that will be covered for test 2
Principles of Biology I
Norris A. Armstrong
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ariana Borzillo on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1107 at University of Georgia taught by Norris A. Armstrong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
ENERGY AND METABOLISM  Bioenergetics o the study of the transformation of energy in living organisms  metabolism o all of the chemical reactions that take place inside cells  includes those that use energy and those that release energy METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATES  living things consume sugar as a major energy source o sugar has a lot of energy stored in its bonds  photosynthesis o plants use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into sugar molecules which creates the carbohydrates consumed  sugar is stored as starch or glycogen o requires input of energy  ATP used to perform immediate work  Energy carrier molecule  18 molecules required to synthesize one molecule of glucose  Light energy is transformed into chemical energy which is stored in ATP and (12 molecules) NADPH o 6CO 2 6H O2+ energy  C H 6 1266 2  once the sugars produced in photosynthesis are consumed, they are distributed to all of the cells in an organism METABOLIC PATHWAYS  anabolic o requires energy  from ATP, NADH, and NADPH o synthesized complex molecules from similar ones (often sugars) o synthesizing proteins o synthesizing DNA  catabolic o releases energy  energy that was stored in bonds o breaking down of sugars o degradation of complex molecules to simpler ones TYPES OF ENERGY  kinetic energy o energy associated with motion of objects  potential energy o energy with the potential to do work o associated with the structure of matter  bonds that hold atoms of molecules together have potential energy  catabolic pathways convert potential energy to chemical energy  chemical energy o energy released when bonds are broken o responsible for providing living cells with food  free energy o all energy transfers involve the loss of some amount of energy in an nd unstable form (such as heat) resulting in entropy (2 Law Thermodynamics)  Gibb’s Free Energy specifically refers to the energy associated with a chemical reaction that is available after entropy is accounted for  The usable energy that is available to do work o used to quantify energy transfers o enthalpy  total energy change o Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)  pH of 7.0  25 C  298.15K  1 atm pressure o exergonic reaction  energy released during a reaction  release of (negative change in) free energy  energy exiting the system  spontaneous reactions o not necessarily fast reacting o catabolic pathway o endergonic reaction  requires input of energy  positive change in free energy  nonspontaneous  will not take place without an input of energy  anabolic pathway o most reactions are reversible and can exist in equilibrium  decreasing the energy both absorbed and released from the system and feeding off of itself  equilibrium is one of the lowest possible free energy and a state of maximal entropy  energy must be put into the system to push the reactants and products away from a state of equilibrium  either reactants or products must be added, removed, or changed  Activation Energy o energy input necessary for all chemical reactions to occur o Exergonic reactions require a small amount of energy input o Endergonic reactions require a large amount of energy input o Transition state  to get them into a state that allows the bonds to break, the molecule must be somewhat contorted  unstable state  high-energy state  heat energy  the total bond energy of reactants or products in a chemical reaction  speeds up the motion of molecules, increasing the frequency and force with which they collide; it also moves atoms and bonds within the molecule slightly, helping them reach their transition state o activation energy of a particular reaction determines the rate at which it will proceed  higher energy  slower reaction speed o often needs to be lowered  catalyst  species that can lower the activation energy required for a reaction o ATP provides energy  small, relatively simple molecule  unstable molecule  within some of its bonds, it contains the potential for a quick burst of energy that can be harnessed to perform cellular work  primary energy source of cells  contains adenosine  nucleoside consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine and a five-carbon sugar, ribose o three phosphate groups are labeled alpha, beta, and gamma in order of closest to furthest from the ribose sugar  bonds linking phosphates are high energy (phosphoanhydride) and release sufficient energy when the bonds are broken  large percentage of a cell’s ATP is spent powering the sodium potassium pump, because cellular processes bring a great deal of sodium into the cell and potassium out of the cell  pump works constantly to stabilize cellular concentrations of sodium and potassium. In order for the pump to turn one cycle (exporting three Na+ ions and importing two K+ ions), one molecule of ATP must be hydrolyzed  ATP is hydrolyzed, its gamma phosphate doesn’t simply float away, but is actually transferred onto the pump protein  ATP + H O → ADP + P + free energy 2 i  Hydrolysis reaction used to perform work


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