Abnormal Psychology (Getzfeld) Week 3 Notes
Abnormal Psychology (Getzfeld) Week 3 Notes Psych-UA 51
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Willow Frederick on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych-UA 51 at New York University taught by Dr. Andrew Getzfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at New York University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Getzfeld Abnormal Psych Week 3: 9/199/21 Sigismund (Sigmund) FREUD Born 1856 May 6 in Freiberg, Moravia, now Pribor in the Czech Republic Parents were jewish but Freud was atheist Oldest of 8 kids. Also had 2 halfbrothers 1859: moved to Vienna, Austria became a medical doctor in 1881 18856: 1 yr internship in Oaris 1886: married Martha Bernays had 6 kids 1891: moved to Berrgasse, Vienna, there until 1938 1895: Anna was born 1896: founded psychoanalysis 1900: interpretation of dreams published 1909: guest lectured at Clark Collegeonly time he visited USA 1923: contacts oral cancer 1938: emigrates to London, dies there a yr later FREUD’s Psyche: ID o Totally UNconscious, “fun” part of personality; does not think of consequences o Houses biological drives/needs (sex drivepleasure) o Theory: present at birth, same size & strength for all o Immediate gratification can never be totally satisfied ! o Primary Process Thinking: disregards logic If you can’t do what you want in the moment, the id will make you daydream o Our IDs are all the same size/strength (not really true probably for ex, ppl have varying sex drives) –Freud said men & women had identical needs! First to sexualize women . . . If something is off, it’s bc their ego or superego is off o Only part of personality present at birth EGO: voice of reason/ the arbiter o seeks gratification but does so w/reality principle –considers consequences o partially conscious/unconscious o bw devil & angelrational thinking o often times the ID wins out over EGO o Ego defense mechanism: to control unacceptable ID impulses o Repression prevents the impulses from ever reaching consciousness SUPEREGO o Last piece of psyche to develop – everybody has it o Partially conscious & unconscious o Morality Principle: conscience & guilt o Not healthy if superego is too strong OR too weak Freud believed in equilibrium o Product of your upbringing// we unconsciously adopt parents’ values, environment No rules growing upweak superego o Things like anxiety & eating disorders can be due to an overactive superego Ego develops out of ID, & superego out of ego3 are often in conflict Garbage Pail Model o Above waterline= conscious o Below waterline= unconscious very hard to accesspoke holes & water will rush out o Iceberg Model o Freud explained normal & abnormal functioning thru developmental stages o Proposed that at each stage, new events & pressures require adjustment in the id, ego, & superego Successful adjustment= personal growth Unsuccessful adjustment= fixationcan lead to psychological abnormality o Often saw parents as cause of improper development bc they’re key figures in early life PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES : everyone goes thru these in this order o ORAL (018 months) Starts @ birth—libidinal gratification via putting things in their mouths (how babies learn) The ID is present at birthour drives=identical Fixation—you were oversatisfied: sarcasm (symbolic biting), overweight, smoking, alcoholism, thumbsucking, biting fingernails o ANAL (18 months3 yrs) This is when potty training should happen Focuses on retention & elimination of feces Undergratification: child is allowed to poop anywhere! –anal expulsive Fixation: anal retentive (neat freak) vs. anal expulsive (messy, say whatever the f you want, for example) Creativity…proud of creations o EGO DEVELOPS – Oedipus kills his father & marries mother o PHALLIC (35 yrs) Oedipal Complex Electra Complex Mother=son relationship—symptoms of sexua l “Daddy’s Girl” girl’s psychosexual conflict in boysdevelop a sense of themselves competition w/her mom for possession of her thru their sexual desires & conflict w/parents dad Resolved by unconscious castration anxiety looks for penis substitute resolved by penis envy LATENCY (512 yrs/puberty) o All urges repressed o Kids identify w/role models – ‘I wanna be like ___’ o Samesex sleepovers GENITAL (puberty—adulthood) o Urges resurface o Cannot be ‘fixated’ here o Freud implies it is ok to have sex/sexual thoughts @this stage Carl Jung, MD Causality: behaviorist motivation based on past experiences Teleology: our destiny. We are drawn to our future even though we have no idea what it includes does the past influence your behavior? DEFENSE MECHANISMS – distort or deny reality; always work subconsciously; come from ego If you overdepend on these, they’ll weaken. . .you can’t always be so onguard. 1. Repression: person avoids anxiety by simply not allowing painful /dangerous thoughts to become conscious a. Suppression= conscious forgetting 2. Denial: person refuses to acknowledge existence of an external source of anxiety a. Presents itself in anorexia, alcoholism b. Most primitive dm & hardest to break through 3. Projection: person attributes own unacceptable impulses, motives, or desired to others 4. Rationalization: person creates a socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unacceptable motives a. ‘the professor is out to get methat’s why I failed’ b. the alcohol did it not me 5. Displacement: person displaces hostility away from a dangerous object & onto a safer substitute a. Aka ‘kicking the dog’ b. What bullying is all about 6. Intellectualization: person represses emotional reactions in favor of an overly logical response to a problem a. ‘there’s a conspiracy to bring me down!’ 7. Regression: person retreats from an upsetting conflict to an early developmental stage at which no one is expected to behave maturely/responsibly a. Eating ice cream to forget problems, play video games instead of studying, etc. Psychodynamic Therapies Range from Freudian psychoanalysis to modern therapies—all seek to uncover past trauma & inner conflicts o Therapist acts as a ‘subtle guide’ so patients discover underlying problems themselves Various techniques o Free association o Therapist interpretation: draw tentative conclusions & share w/patient when ready Resistance (unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy), transference (act or feel towards therapist as they do/did towards important ppl in their lives), dream interpretation, etc. o Catharsis: reliving of past repressed feelings o Working through: often takes years Contemporary Trends o Usually psychodynamic therapy takes 35x/wk for 35 years o ShortTerm Psychodynamic Therapies: patients choose a singly problem (dynamic focus) to work on o Relational Psychoanalytic Theory: therapists should also disclose things about themselves—particularly their own reactions to patients (equal relationship) Assessing Freud’s Psychodynamic Model Strengths Weaknesses first to recognize importance of unsupported ideas & nonobservable psychological theories & treatment saw abnormal functioning as rooted in same difficult to research processes as normal functioning first to APPLY theory & techniques inaccessible to human subject (unconscious) systematically to treatment PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES (again) o Free association o Therapist interpretation o Resistance find out what patient is not telling us o Transference (Report)—patient makes connection w/therapist May see therapist as omnipotent, nurturing, trusting figure, frustrating o Dream interpretation—look for themes some therapists do, some don’t o Catharsis emotional release (get a good cry out) o Working through BEHAVIORISTS o Operant Conditioning (rewards) o Modeling (Watching Others) o Classical Conditioning (Temporal Association) o Ivan PAVLOV: classical conditioning w/dogs Food= unconditioned stimulus Bell= conditioned stimulus Salivation= response o This can happen w/phobias too—aka Little Albert? o BF Skinner: did not work w/humans (rats & pigeons)—operant conditioning o Raised his daughter Deborah Skinner in a playpen box (Skinner box) o Any behavior that is reinforced or rewarded is likely to be repeated o Any behavior that is punished is less likely to be repeated & more likely to be extinguished o Skinner did not believe in the unconscious mind o Albert Bandura bobo dolls –modeling o His question: does watching violence lead to violent behavior? o Kids were either exposed to ‘model’ kids playing nicely w/doll, or model kids playing violentely w/doll o Monkey see monkey do o Harry Harlow monkeys o Babies that were raised w/cloth mothers adjusted well to normal social monkey life, but monkeys from wire mother acted inappropriately when put into normal social monkey environment contact comfort is so important for raising a child! o Like psychodynamic theorists, behaviorists believe that our actions are determined largely by our experiences in life o Concentrates on behaviors & environmental factors in the PRESENT o Bases explanations & treatments on principles of learning o Model began in labs where conditioning studies were conducted o Explaining abnormal functioning? o Operant conditioning humans & animals learn to behave in a certain way as a result of receiving rewards whenever they do so o Modeling learn responses by observing & repeating behaviors o Classical Conditioning learn by temporal association o Something in the environment must be reinforcing/punishing behavior Behavioral Therapies o Aim to identify behaviors that are causing problems & replace them with more appropriate ones—therapist is ‘teacher’ rather than healer. o Classical conditioning treatments can be used to change abnormal reactions to certain stimuli. o Behavioral therapies work very well when treating erectile dysfunction Clinical Assessment: Used to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally and how they may be helped o Family history o Environmental stressors o Alcohol/drug use o Rule out physiological etiologies Many physical problems mimic mental disorders Ex.syphilus can lead to paranoid dilusions Make sure patients have had a physical exam recently to help rule those out o Academic/work history o Openended questions – not yes/no questions Structured interview just follows order of questions, but openended interview you can go on tangents & dig deeper Classification Systems o DSM5: Provides nomenclature Basis for making predictions Basis for theory formulation Approximately 500 disorders—groups them based on common symptoms About 17% of ppl have 3 or more diagnosed disorders Dimensional info rating severity Problems Does NOT tell you how to treat Labeling, misdiagnosis, stigma, selffulfilling prophecy Relies on clinician’s judgment, which could be wrong DSM5 requires clinicians to provide both categorical and dimensional information as part of a proper diagnosis. Categorical information refers to the name of the category (disorder) indicated by the client’s symptoms. Dimensional information is a rating of how severe a client’s symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various dimensions of personality. Here, reliability means that different clinicians are likely to agree on a diagnosis using the system to diagnose the same client DSM5 appears to have greater reliability than any previous edition Used field trials to increase reliability Reliability is still a concern The validity of a classification system is the accuracy of the information that its diagnostic categories provide Predictive validity is of the most use clinically DSM5 has greater validity than any previous edition Conducted extensive literature reviews and ran field studies Validity is still a concern The framers of DSM5 followed certain procedures in their development of the new manual to help ensure that DSM5 would have greater reliability than the previous DSMs A number of new diagnostic criteria were developed and categories, expecting that the new criteria and categories were in fact reliable. Some critics continue to have concerns about the procedures used in the development of DSM5 See ppt for list of DSM5 changes Assessing Behavioral Model Strengths Weaknesses powerful force in field no evidence that symptoms are ordinarily acquired thru conditioning can be tested in a lab behavioral therapy is limited doesn’t take into account past or future significant research support for behavioral too simplistic – gets rid of unwanted therapy behaviors w/other bad behaviors—‘symptom substitution’ is a risk COGNITIVE MODEL : proposes that we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking at cognitive processes o Abnormal functioning can arise from several kinds of cognitive problems o Faulty assumptions & attitudes o Illogical thinking processes o Main model : Beck’s Cognitive Therapy Psychoneuroimmunology o Body’s immune system is key to relationship bw stress & infection, & other physical disorders o When you’re super stressed, you’re more likely to catch something o Social support o People who have few social supports and feel lonely seem to display poorer immune functioning in the face of stress than people who do not feel lonely o Studies have found that social support and affiliation with others may actually protect people from stress, poor immune system functioning, and subsequent illness, and can help speed up recovery from illness or surgery o Behavioral changes o Stress may set in motion a series of behavioral changes – poor sleep patterns, poor eating, lack of exercise, increase in smoking and/or drinking – that indirectly affect the immune system o Personality style o An individual’s personality style (including their level of optimism, constructive coping strategies, and resilience) may also play a role in determining how much the immune system is slowed down by stress ANXIETY: a mood state characterized by negative affect & somatic symptoms of tension o A person with anxiety apprehensively anticipates future dread or misfortune— afraid of the future & convinced it will be bad o May cause subjective unease in humans Worry Physiological symptoms Enhances physical & intellectual functions, but too much anxiety disrupts function o Neurotic paradoxsevere anxiety does not dissipate even when no threat is present
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