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Biology 1020 Class Notes 9/21/16

by: Marisa Connally

Biology 1020 Class Notes 9/21/16 BIOL 1020

Marketplace > Auburn University > BIOL 1020 > Biology 1020 Class Notes 9 21 16
Marisa Connally

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About this Document

Chapters 7 & 8 detailed lecture notes with important information emphasized
Principles of Biology
Dr. Zanzot
Class Notes
passive, active, transport, ion, pumps, metabolism
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisa Connally on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Zanzot in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Bio 1020 Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Aided by Proteins - In facilitated diffusion, transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane - Channel proteins provide corridors that allow a specific molecule or ion to cross the membrane - Channel Proteins include • Aquaporins, for facilitated diffusion of water • Ion channels that open or close in response to a stimulus (gated channels) - Passive transport = no energy input required - Tonicity affects passivity of transport - Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients - Facilitated diffusion is still passive bc the solute moves down its concentration gradient and the transport requires no energy - Some transport proteins, however, can move solutes against their concentration gradients - Active transport moves substances against their concentration gradient - Active transport requires energy, usually in the form of ATP [cleave off last phosphate group] - Active transport is performed by specific proteins embedded… - Sodium Potassium pump: important in nerve cells. Na high in extracellular fluid, K low. Opposite inside cell. In order to even out concentration, ATP (energy) is required, changes shape of pump, 3 Na go out, 2 K come in…… Basically, need energy to crack open channel and move molecules around. - How ion pumps maintain membrane potential • Membrane potential is the voltage difference across a membrane (how high is water at top of dam, vs how low is water at bottom) 1 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 • Voltage is created by differences in the distribution of positive and negative ions across a membrane (accumulating charge on either side of a membrane) • Two combined forces, collectively called the electrochemical gradient, drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane - A chemical force (the ion’s concentration gradient) - An electrical force(the effect of the membrane potential on the ion’s movement) • Electrogenic pumps - is a trasnport protein - generates voltage acress a membrane - Na+ - K+ pump is the major electrogenic pump of animal cells - plants, fungi, bacteria have proton pumps (pH adjuster) - ATP pumps H+ out of cell… Higher [H+] = lower pH - Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by EXOCYTOSIS and ENDOCYTOSIS • Small molecules and water enter or leave the cell through the lipid blurrier or via transport proteins • Large molecules, such as polysaccharides and proteins, cross the membrane in bulk via vesicles - EXOcytosis • transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with i, and release their contents many secretory cells use exocytosis to export their products • - ENDO • cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles fro the plasma membrane • endo is a reversal of exocytosis, involving diff proteins • 3 types of endo****: - phagocytosis- (eating) Amoeba. Engulfs food particles, forms food vacuole. Requires energy. 2 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 - pino - (drinking). Take in bits of extracellular fluid via plasma membrane pockets. - Receptor-mediated endocytosis: receptors bonded to plasma membrane, looking for chemical signal (ligand) to bind to receptor, when enough receptors have signals, they begin poking into the cell to form a coated vesicle. - 3 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 Chapter 8: Intro to Metabolism - Metabolism is the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions [processes] - Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell - A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule and ends with a product - Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme [special polypeptide] - Starting molecule —> reaction 1/enzyme 1/ —> B —> reaction 2/enzyme 2 —> C Product - Organized, yet complicated - Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds - Cellular respiration, the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen, is an example of a pathway of catabolism (hydrolysis) - Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones. build up - The sunfishes of protein from amino ac is an example of anabolism - Bioenergetics is the study of how organisms manage their energy resources - Forms of Energy • Energy is the capacity to cause change • engergy exists in various forms, some of which can perform work - kinetic - heat - potential [energy of position] - chemical [energy in bonds] - light • Energy can be converted from one form to another - diving: circle. Potential on platform. Conversion during dive. All kinetic in water. Convert back to potential while climbing back onto platform. 4 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 • Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations (one form to another) • An isolated system, such as that approximated by liquid in a thermos, is isolated from its surroundings • In an open system, energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings • Organisms are open systems • According to the first law of thermodynamics, the energy of the universe is constant - Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed • 2nd Law: during every energy transfer, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as heat - Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe - You can’t break even • 3rd Law: irrelevant to discussion, but you can’t get out of the system • 1st law: eat fish [chemical energy] 2nd law: transformed to kinetic energy, some is lost through breath and heat • Living cells unavoiably convert organized forms of energy to heat • Spontaneous processes occur without energy input; they can happen quickly or slowly (e.g. diffusion, passive transport) • For a process to occur without energy input, it must increase the entropy of the universe • Biological Order and Disorder - Cells create ordered structures from less ordered materials - Organisms also replace ordered forms of matter and energy with less ordered forms - Energy flows into an ecosystem in the form of light [sun] and exits in the form of heat 5 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 - The evolution of more complex organism does not violate the second law of thermodynamics: entropy may decrease in an organism, but universe’s total entropy still increases 6


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