CRIMINOLOGY 100 CRIM 100
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patricia Miranda on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 100 at George Mason University taught by Michelle R Nuneville in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
THE CRIME PICTURE Bunny hunting: where child abusers send messages to kids they don't know trying to get them to respond Crime Data and Social Policy ● Crime data portrays a statistical picture of crime ○ Powerful tool for creating social policy ○ –Officials rely on crime data to: ■ •Analyze and evaluate existing programs ■ •Design new crimecontrol initiatives ■ •Develop funding requests ■ •Plan new laws There are some that question just how objective and how useful crime statistics are? Public opinion about crime is not always realistic and is greatly influenced by the news media. Collection of Crime Data ● Crime data comes from two main sources ○ FBI’s Uniform Reporting (UCR) Program/ National IncidentBased Reporting System (NIBRS) ■ Operated by the FBI ○ National Crime VIctimization Survey (NCVS) ■ Operated by the Bureau of Justice Statistics ● Other sources of crime data ○ Offense self reportsleast reliable ○ Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics The UCR/NIBRS Program ● Created in 1927 by the IACP and adopted by the FBI in 1930 ● Approximately 18,000 law enforcement agencies provide crime information for the program ● Original UCR program included a “Crime Index” of seven major offenses to include murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larcenytheft and motor vehicle theft (originally called Part 1 offenses) ○ In 1979 the crime of arson was added ○ In 2004 the Crime Index was discontinued ○ Crime Index did not provide a clear picture of criminality – skewed by the offense with the highest number of reports* National IncidentBased Reporting System (NIBRS) ➢ Began in 1988 as part of a significant redesign of the original UCR ➢ While original UCR system was “summary based”; NIBRS is more “incident driven” ➢ New UCR / NIBRS system gathers many details about each criminal incident such as: ○ Place of occurrence ○ Weapon used ○ Type and value of property damaged or stolen ○ Personal characteristics of the offender and victim ○ Nature of relationship between the victim and offender ○ Disposition of complaint CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE Goals of NIBRS: •Enhance the quality, quantity and timeliness of crime data collection •Improve methodology for computing, analyzing, auditing and publishing collected data •Not all LE agencies submit crime data to NIBRS Historical Trends of UCR / NIBRS ➢ UCR / NIBRS reports “crime rates” per 100,000 people ➢ Three major shifts in crime rates since UCR program began ○ Early 1940’s – sharp decrease in crime ○ 1960’s – 1990’s – dramatic increase in crime ○ 19912013 – significant decrease in crime ○ Another shift may be on the horizon – some larger cities have begun experiencing an increase in violent crime Differences between UCR / NIBRS ➢ Traditional UCR ➢ Clustered crime counts ➢ Records one crime offense per incident as determined by severity** ➢ Does not distinguish between attempted and completed crimes ➢ Provides counts on arrests for the eight major (Part I) offenses and 21 other offenses. ➢ Collects weapon information for murder, robbery and aggravated assault ➢ Sees robbery as a personal crime ➢ NIBRS ➢ Individual incident records for 23 offense categories composed of 49 offenses ➢ Details provided for the offenses including victim, offender and property involved ➢ Distinguishes between attempted and completed crimes ➢ Collects weapon information for all violent offenses ➢ Provides details on arrests from the Part I Offenses and 49 other offenses ➢ Sees robbery as a property crime ***** Bullet #2 Records one crime offense per incident meaning that if someone is charged with more than one crime in one single incident such as murder and burglary, the murder would be counted under UCR but the robbery would most likely not be counted. UCR / NIBRS in Transition – the new NIBRS collects more data but the definitions on certain kinds of crime under NIBRS differs from what they were under the traditional UCR program. Murder ➢ Unlawful killing of one human being by another ➢ First Degree Murder murder that is planned ➢ Second Degree Murder murder that is “generally” unplanned (“heat of the moment”) ➢ In 2014, there were 4.5 homicides for every 100,000 residents in the US. ➢ ** This number does not include suicides, justifiable homicides (selfdefense), deaths caused by negligence or accident and murder attempts ➢ Mass murder – killing of four or more victims at one location within one event ➢ Spree killings – killing at two or more locations with no time break between murders CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE Rape ➢ Unlawful sexual intercourse achieved through force and without consent ➢ Statutory rape – involves nonforcible sexual intercourse with a minor ➢ Forcible rape – forcibly and against the victim’s will ➢ 2012 – definition of rape expanded to include all persons who are sexually violated against their will (male victims) ➢ Date rape – unlawful forced sexual intercourse with a person without their consent; occurs within a dating relationship “Rohypnol” ➢ Rape within a marriage – crime? Rape within a marriage – not always recognized as a crime; over the past several years, laws have been enacted to deter rape within a marriage. Some starts criminalize the sexual abuse of a female by a male as “statutory” rape Robbery ➢ Unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear ➢ Personal crime ➢ Strongarm robbery is committed through intimidation rather than with a weapon ➢ Most common target is an individual ➢ Primarily an urban offense ➢ Most arrestees are young male minorities ➢ 2014 – 86% arrested for robbery were males; 59% under the age of 25 and 58% were minorities ➢ NEW – “Flash robs” – social media Aggravated Assault ➢ Unlawful, intentional inflicting or attempted or threatened inflicting of serious injury upon the person of another ➢ Weapons are usually used and medical assistance is required for it to be defined as an aggravated assault ➢ Assault – attempt to inflict injury on another person. Once completed, it becomes an Assault and Battery. For statistical purposes, attempted and completed (Assault and Battery) are grouped under the term “Assault” Simple assaults are misdemeanors. Two types of assaults – simple and aggravated Simple assault is more pushing and shoving (misdemeanor) Burglary ➢ Unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. According to UCR/NIBRS – the crime of burglary can be reported if: ○ An unlawful entry of an unlocked structure has occurred ○ A breaking and entering of a secured structure has occurred ○ A burglary has been attempted ➢ There are three classifications of burglaries: 1. Unlawful entry where no force is used 2. Attempted forced entry 3. Forcible entry CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE ➢ The clearance rate for burglaries is low; 13.6 percent in 2014. Most burglars do not know their victims. Larceny ➢ Unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading or riding away of property from the possession of another ➢ Some categories of larcenies include: ○ Thefts from motor vehicles ** most common ○ Shoplifting ○ Thefts from buildings ○ Thefts of motor vehicle parts ○ Bicycle thefts ○ Pocket picking ➢ Larceny is the most common of the eight major offenses discussed ➢ A small number of victims will report a larceny because of the small dollar amounts involved. Identity theft is a special kind of larceny; now a federal crime. Identity theft is the fastest growing type of crime in America Motor Vehicle Theft ➢ The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. ○ Motor vehicle defined as selfpropelled road vehicles that run on land surface and not rails. ○ Thefts of trains, planes, boats, farm machinery and construction equipment are considered larcenies ○ Carjacking – involves violence ○ High reporting rate because of insurance companies ○ Low clearance rate especially in large cities – disassembled and sold for parts ○ Most arrests for motor vehicle theft were suspects under the age of 25 and 81% males ○ National Insurance Crime Bureau Statistics Arson ➢ Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn with or without intent to defraud ○ A dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft and personal property of another ○ Arsons are committed for the following reasons: ■ malicious mischief ■ insurance claims for money ■ to disguise other crimes such as murder, burglary or larceny ○ Clearance rate for Arson is low Part II Offenses ➢ Less serious crimes than Part I crimes ➢ Part II offenses include a number of “social” order victimless crimes ➢ Statistics only include recorded arrests, not crimes reported to the police CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE ➢ Simple Assault ➢ Gambling ➢ Forgery/Counterfeiting ➢ Driving Under the Influence ➢ Fraud ➢ Liquor Law Violations ➢ Embezzlement ➢ Public Drunkenness ➢ Weapons ➢ Vagrancy ➢ Vandalism ➢ Curfew laws ➢ Prostitution ➢ Loitering ➢ Sex Offenses ➢ Runaways ➢ Drug Law ➢ Violations The National Crime Victimization Survey ➢ Began in 1972 ➢ NCVS based on self reports vs police reports ➢ Designed to estimate the occurrence of all crimes; reported or not ➢ “Dark Figure of Crime” ➢ Primary source of information on the characteristics of criminal victimization and on the number and types of crimes not reported to LE ➢ Statistics: ➢ Nine percent of American households are “touched” by crime every year ➢ Approximately ½ of all violent crime and 1/3 of all property crime are reported to police ➢ Victims of crime are more often men than women ➢ Young people more likely to be victims of crime vs. elderly ➢ Blacks more often than whites or other racial groups to be victims of violent crime ➢ Violent victimization rates are highest among people in lowerincome families Comparisons of the UCR and NCVS ➢ UCR Concerns: ➢ Not all victims report crime ➢ Some types of crime rarely reported – social order crimes such as prostitution, gambling, drug use ➢ Hightechnology and computer crimes may be underrepresented ➢ Victim reports may be inaccurate ➢ NCVS Concerns: ➢ Responses are subjective, accuracy can be questionable CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE ➢ Some victims are less willing to respond to the survey ➢ Some victims are afraid to report their crimes Special categories of crime ➢ Crime Typology – classification of crimes along a particular dimension; characteristics such as offender motivation, victim behavior or characteristics of individual offenders. ➢ The nine listed crimes are considered special based on their social relevance. Crime typologies are designed to simplify social reality by identifying homogeneous groups of crime behaviors that are different from other clusters of crime behaviors. Crimes against women ➢ Date rape, familial incest, spouse abuse, stalking, exploitation of women through social offenses such as prostitution and pornography ➢ Domestic Violence is the largest cause of injury to American women ➢ NVAWS ○ 52% of women have been physically assaulted as a child or adult ○ 1.9 million women are physically assaulted in the US each year ○ 18% of women experienced a completed or attempted rape sometime in their lives ■ 22% were under 12 years of age ■ 32% were between 1217 years of age when first raped ➢ Violence against women mostly partner violence ➢ Approximately one million women and 371, 000 men are stalked annually in the US ➢ Antistalking legislation in all 50 states and DC to protect women ○ 80% of all stalking victims are women ○ Cyberstalking ➢ Stalking is defined as repeated harassing and threatening behavior by one individual against another, aspects of which may be planned or carried out in secret. Stalking might involve following a person, appearing at a person’s home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person’s property. Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim or members of the victim’s immediate family. ➢ Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email, and other electronic communication technologies to stalk another person. Crimes against the elderly ➢ Likelihood of victimization declines as an individual gets older ➢ Victims of property crimes, victimized in their homes, are victimized by strangers ➢ More likely to report the crime to police ➢ More likely to be physically injured ○ Domestic abuse – caregiver ○ Institutional abuse – residential setting “Fraudsters Prey on Seniors” Hate crime or Bias Crime ➢ A criminal offense committed against a person, property or society that is motivated by the offender’s bias against a: CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE ○ Race ○ Religion ○ Disability ○ Sexual Orientation ○ Ethnicity/National Origin ➢ Most hate crimes consist of intimidation but others include simple or aggravated assault ○ –Dylann Roof Corporate & White Collar Crime ➢ Corporate crime A violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity. ➢ White Collar crime – A violation of the criminal law, committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his or her occupation. –can include nonviolent crime for financial gain –Utilizing deception –Committed by anyone who has special technical or professional knowledge of business/government; regardless of the person’s occupation Organized crime ➢ Unlawful activities of members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods or services. ➢ Services include gambling, prostitution, loansharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering, and other unlawful activities. ➢ Other organized groups such as the Crips and Bloods, Vice Lords, Hell’s Angels, Pagans and drug cartels ➢ Transnational Organized Crime – unlawful activity undertaken and supported by organized criminal groups operating across national boundaries ➢ “Crime does not respect national boundaries; it is global and what happens in one part of the world can affect all of us” Gun Crime ➢ Constitutional right to bear arms ➢ Many crimes are committed with or a firearm is used during the crime ○ Nearly one million serious crimes involve the use of a handgun ➢ “Open carry” ➢ Mass shootings ○ Newtown CT Aurora CO VA Tech ○ Aurora CO Charleston, SC ➢ Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act – provided a five day waiting period; national incident criminal background check system – discontinued in 1998 when instant computerized background checking system implemented. Drug crime ➢ Drugrelated crime has continued to increase while many other types of crimes have decreased ➢ Major cause of growth in the U.S. prison population CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES THE CRIME PICTURE ➢ Link between drugs and crime – increase in drugrelated homicides ➢ Legalization of marijuana and “soft” drugs – not thought to cause physical addiction ➢ Crack Cocaine vs. Prescription drugs vs. Heroin vs. Fentanyl Cybercrime ➢ Any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology ➢ Any violation of a federal or state cyber crime statute ➢ Most frequent cybercrime? Terrorism CLASS NOTES TEACHER NOTES