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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Benge on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC-220 at Grand Canyon University taught by Jenny Lane in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Social Issues a condition that undermines the wellbeing of some or all members of a society and is usually a matter of public controversy. C laims he process of convincing the public and important public officials that a particular issue or situation should be defined as a social problem. The Four Stages of a Social Movement ● Emergence When a movement first begins ● Coalescence When the movement begins to make its beliefs public ● Formalization When they become established players on the political scene ● Decline Either when the movement has seen success or if it runs out of steam, whether it be lack of money, support or an opposing force THEORY TYPES Theory a statement of how and why specific facts are related. Theo retical Approach a basic image of society that guides theory and research. Structural F unctional approach a theoretical framework that sees society as a system of many interrelated parts. Social Conflict approach a theoretical framework that sees society as divided by inequality and conflict Symbo lic Interaction approach a theoretical framework that sees society as the product of individuals interacting with one another. ECONOMY Social Stratification society’s system of ranking categories of people in a hierarchy. 20% of all families receive almost 50% of all income Income inequality is now greater than at any time in the past fifty years Rich families, who on average earn eighty times more than lowerincome families, pay almost 800 times more in federal income tax. Progressive Taxation a policy that raises tax rates as income increases Absolute Poverty Line directly linked to the cost of a basic diet ● poverty is seen as a condition in which people may not have enough to get by ● How everyone else is doing does not figure into the poverty rate Relative Poverty Line set at 60 percent of the median income level ● poverty is seen as a relative condition that prevents people from being able to fully participate in social life Poverty line for one person 11,720 annually Underclass poor people who live in areas with high concentrations of poverty and limited opportunities for schooling or work. Poverty leads to ● Poor health ● Substandard housing ● Homelessness ● Limited schooling ● Crime ● Political alienation “Culture of Poverty” thesis by Oscar Lewis RACIAL INEQUALITY Race a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society define as important. Everyone started out as African and then as people migrated to cooler climates melatonin levels decreased causing the skin to lighten. Race wasn’t invented till the 1500’s when world trade really began Race was divided into 3 categories ● Caucasian ● Negroid ● Mongoloid Are Races Real? ● There are no biologically pure races ● We find physical diversity everywhere, even within “races” ● Racial categories do not describe human diversity well Ethnicity a shared cultural heritage, which typically involves common ancestors, language, and religion Minority any category of people, identified by physical or cultural traits, that a society subjects to disadvantages. PATTERNS OF MAJORITYMINORITY INTERACTION Genocide the systematic killing of one category of people by another Segregation the physical and social separation of categories of people ● Continues today, not by law, but by people ● Is decreasing though Assimilation the process by which minorities gradually adopt cultural patterns from the dominant majority population Pluralism a state in which people of all racial and ethnic categories have about the same overall social standing Stereotype an exaggerated description applied to every person in some category Racism the assertion that people of one race are less worthy than or even biologically inferior to others. Why is racism wide spread? ● the claim that people are biologically inferior, although entirely wrong, can be used to justify making them socially inferior ● Structural Functional ● Fatalism people accept their situation and to make the assumption that life is not likely to get better. People develop low selfesteem, limited aspirations, and a sense of powerlessness. Over time, they grow into adults who are not likely to take advantage of any opportunities that society might offer them Symbolic Interaction ● “A sense of always looking at oneself through the eyes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity.” ● Society makes whites the standard by which others should be measured or master status Social Conflict ● the unequal standing of minorities reflects the organization of society itself ● the capitalist elite, realizing that the strength of the working class lies in its greater numbers, tries to divide the workers by playing up racial and ethnic differences. ● Multi Cultural Theory ○ provides privileges to the dominant European, white majority while pushing racial and ethnic minorities to the margins of society POLITICAL VIEWS ON RACIAL INEQUALITY Conservatives ● Believes if people work hard they can make it (live the American dream) ● Society should be free which can come with inequality, a society without inequality almost certainly means little personal freedom ● Against affirmative action policies ○ Creates “reverse discrimination” by favoring people based on their race or gender and not on their achievements and qualifications ○ Doesn’t actually help the minorities that need the help, it only helps minorities that have already made it ● Believes cultural differences causes racial inequality Liberals ● Believes societal factors, such as prejudicism and discrimination causes racial inequality ● Not everyone has the same chance to get ahead by working hard ● Look to government as the solution, therefore support affirmative action policies ○ See it as a necessary correction for historical prejudicism to help level the playing field ○ Point to history to prove that it is good and effective ■ 1960’s affirmative action made businesses hire african americans and women, in turn helping to grow the african american middle class Radical Lefts ● Believes capitalism itself is the cause of all inequality ● Society should eliminate the concept of race ○ as long as a society continues to recognize race, it will divide people, giving advantages to some at the expense of others The “Color Blind” Goal ● Conservatives focus on personal achievements & ignore color ● Liberals think that discrimination can only be stopped by government programs ● Radicals think that racism is too entrenched in our society so major fundamental change must happen
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