Bio week 3 notes
Bio week 3 notes BSC 1005 - 0004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolette Bauer on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 - 0004 at Florida State University taught by George Bates, Gregory Erickson, Hengli Tang, Steven Lenhert, Carolyn Schultz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Biology for non-majors in Biology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Biology Notes For exam 1 part 2 All living things are made of cells Basic animal cell: Basic plant cell: The cell wall provides rigidity- holds neighboring cells together Chloroplast- photosynthesis o In leaves o CO2 + H20 + light sugars for growth and E+O2 During photosynthesis plants loose large amounts of H20 “transpiration” o Water is replenished by the root system Xylem- moves H20 Guard cells and stomates o In leaf surface creates pores (stomates) C02 enters and H20 leaves o Protects the plant from H20 loss Plant cell walls are composed of long chains of sugars particularly CELLULOSE o Long chains of glucose o Bond with each other to make cells of steel Like wood o Stem of trees CO2 in atmosphere carbon cycle Respiration- sugars+ O2 CO2 +H20 + E o Energy is released Plants grow by producing shoot tips cell growth Removing shoot tip causes lateral buds to grow out makes plants bushy Phloem transports sugar Xylem transports H20 from roots to the leaves Plants that live more than 1 year (perennials) grow in width as well as length (rings of tree get larger tree stem gets larger) When flowering starts, the shoot tip stops making leaves and produces a reproductive system Stamen- anther Ovary- contains one or more ovules- contains an egg After fertilization- the ovule becomes the seed Egg- becomes embryo- a young plant Each anther contains sacs where pollen comes from Each pollen grain contains 2 sperm cells Plant reproduction and animal reproduction are the same on the cellular level When a pollen grain lands on a stigma a pollen tube grows outpollination o The pollen tube delivers sperm to an egg fertilization o Pollen is somehow attracted to the chemical signals (hormones) and is attracted to the egg o Chemical attracting o This is how the pollen finds the egg o Ex: female periods and similar cycles A developed seed contains an embryo, a young plant Endosperm- food for young plant After fertilization the ovary becomes the fruit Flowers purpose- reproduction- bring male and female reproductive cells together Wind pollination- female flowers are small but stigmatic surface is large o No petals o Large stigmas o Lots of pollen o Very effective Wind pollinated plants: o Oak trees o Corn o Wheat o Rice Tassel is stigma and style of a flower so the pollen has to go through the tassel to get to the big stigmatic surface Pollination by animals- flowers provide rewards o Rewards- nectar and pollen Many pollinators will eat pollen (protein source) Attractions- flower, shape, color, and scent Bee pollination- o Flowers have long landing platform, blue or yellow colors, scented, nectar as reward o Bees learn quickly to recognize color, odors, and outlines o Anther touches bee pollen lands on bee Flowers that are pollinated by butterflies are extremely similar o Bees and butterflies are generalists pollinate on a general variety of flowers Some flowers pollinated by butterflies and other insects Fly pollinated flowers look and smell like rotting flesh Birds have poor sense of smell o Those flowers produce lots of nectar and are red as well as odorless Bat pollinated flowers make lots of nectar, open at night, musky Wasp pollination of orchids- pseudo copulation o No reward o Insects being fooled Many plants self pollinate much of the time, offspring a genetically uniform Cross pollination creates genetic variability, important for species to adapt to general environment After fertilization the ovule develops into the seed Fruits are very diverse and disperse their seeds in different ways: wind, H2O, animals, and more Mistletoe plants eject their seeds Water-dispersed: coconut (floats through seas) Clinging fruits- cling to animals to reproduce Avocados disperse by being eaten by animals (giant extinct sloth) o Now we plant avocados
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