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Bio week 3 notes

by: Nicolette Bauer

Bio week 3 notes BSC 1005 - 0004

Nicolette Bauer
GPA 3.9

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General Biology for non-majors
George Bates, Gregory Erickson, Hengli Tang, Steven Lenhert, Carolyn Schultz
Class Notes
Biology, plants, cells, homeostasis, Bio
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolette Bauer on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 - 0004 at Florida State University taught by George Bates, Gregory Erickson, Hengli Tang, Steven Lenhert, Carolyn Schultz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Biology for non-majors in Biology at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Biology Notes For exam 1 part 2  All living things are made of cells  Basic animal cell:  Basic plant cell:  The cell wall provides rigidity- holds neighboring cells together  Chloroplast- photosynthesis o In leaves o CO2 + H20 + light sugars for growth and E+O2  During photosynthesis plants loose large amounts of H20 “transpiration” o Water is replenished by the root system  Xylem- moves H20  Guard cells and stomates o In leaf surface creates pores (stomates)  C02 enters and H20 leaves o Protects the plant from H20 loss  Plant cell walls are composed of long chains of sugars particularly CELLULOSE o Long chains of glucose o Bond with each other to make cells of steel  Like wood o Stem of trees  CO2 in atmosphere  carbon cycle  Respiration- sugars+ O2  CO2 +H20 + E o Energy is released   Plants grow by producing shoot tips cell growth  Removing shoot tip causes lateral buds to grow out makes plants bushy  Phloem transports sugar  Xylem transports H20 from roots to the leaves   Plants that live more than 1 year (perennials) grow in width as well as length (rings of tree get larger tree stem gets larger)  When flowering starts, the shoot tip stops making leaves and produces a reproductive system  Stamen- anther  Ovary- contains one or more ovules- contains an egg  After fertilization- the ovule becomes the seed  Egg- becomes embryo- a young plant  Each anther contains sacs where pollen comes from  Each pollen grain contains 2 sperm cells  Plant reproduction and animal reproduction are the same on the cellular level  When a pollen grain lands on a stigma a pollen tube grows outpollination o The pollen tube delivers sperm to an egg  fertilization o  Pollen is somehow attracted to the chemical signals (hormones) and is attracted to the egg o Chemical attracting o This is how the pollen finds the egg o Ex: female periods and similar cycles  A developed seed contains an embryo, a young plant   Endosperm- food for young plant  After fertilization the ovary becomes the fruit  Flowers purpose- reproduction- bring male and female reproductive cells together  Wind pollination- female flowers are small but stigmatic surface is large o No petals o Large stigmas o Lots of pollen o Very effective  Wind pollinated plants: o Oak trees o Corn o Wheat o Rice  Tassel is stigma and style of a flower so the pollen has to go through the tassel to get to the big stigmatic surface   Pollination by animals- flowers provide rewards o Rewards- nectar and pollen  Many pollinators will eat pollen (protein source)  Attractions- flower, shape, color, and scent  Bee pollination- o Flowers have long landing platform, blue or yellow colors, scented, nectar as reward o Bees learn quickly to recognize color, odors, and outlines o Anther touches bee pollen lands on bee  Flowers that are pollinated by butterflies are extremely similar o Bees and butterflies are generalists pollinate on a general variety of flowers  Some flowers pollinated by butterflies and other insects  Fly pollinated flowers look and smell like rotting flesh  Birds have poor sense of smell o Those flowers produce lots of nectar and are red as well as odorless  Bat pollinated flowers make lots of nectar, open at night, musky  Wasp pollination of orchids- pseudo copulation o No reward o Insects being fooled  Many plants self pollinate much of the time, offspring a genetically uniform  Cross pollination creates genetic variability, important for species to adapt to general environment  After fertilization the ovule develops into the seed  Fruits are very diverse and disperse their seeds in different ways: wind, H2O, animals, and more  Mistletoe plants eject their seeds  Water-dispersed: coconut (floats through seas)  Clinging fruits- cling to animals to reproduce  Avocados disperse by being eaten by animals (giant extinct sloth) o Now we plant avocados


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