Psychology 110 Exam 1 notes
Psychology 110 Exam 1 notes PSY 110
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Lewis on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at Illinois State University taught by Cathleen Campbell-Raufer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Psychology Notes Chapter 1 August 22- Why do psychologists use the scientific method? Procedure used when a research problem arises Use to collect, draw and analyze data Most objective method known for getting dependable knowledge What did early psychologists contribute to the field? launched the study of it Titchener founded the school of thought functionalism Structuralism-first formal school of thought, aimed in analyzing the structures of mental experiences Functionalism-HOW animals and humans use the mental process A lot of females in this field of study had to work hard to be accepted What are the major schools of thought in Psychology? Behaviorism-behavior study, emphasis on the role of the environment in behavior Humanistic =-focuses on uniqueness of the person and the capacity for choice and growth Psychoanalysis- focus on the unconscious Cognitive- focus o } n mental process such as memory and problem solving, reasoning and decision making Evolutionary-how human behaviors are necessary for survival and focus on adaption in environment around us Biological-look for links between specific behaviors and biology, biological factors hereditary Gestalt- focuses on the study as a whole instead of in parts Sociocultural- emphasis on culture and society grown up in What are specialty areas that exist in Psy? Clinical-diagnosis + treatment of mental and behavioral disorders, majority of all problems go to this specialty School- diagnosis and treatment of learning and behavioral disorders and problems Forensic- legal system, law issues, ex. how to select a jury Counseling-help those with adjustment problems, less severe than clinical problems Philological-bio PSY =neuro PSY relation between physiological process and behavior Experimental-conduct PSY experiments, learning, memory and sensation Developmental-study how people grow and age along their lifetime Educational- study best ways to teach and learn Social-how individuals think/feel in social situations Industrial organizational- relationships between people and their work How do psychologists evaluate theories? they evaluate them by how useful they are to the problem by which there is a testable hypothesis by whether it suggests solutions to problems Heuristic value- does it spark debate? How does critical thinking help with evaluating research? Critical thinkers are Independent thinkers Willingness to change or modify thought Suspension of judgement Best way to go about thinking What are pros and cons of observational and case studies? Naturalistic observations is of nature and humans in their natural habitat. In this environment the psychologists have to be very patient and wait for the behavior or event to are happen that they are trying to study. But because it is in nature or natural environment it is more likely to be accurate. The case study is when a experiment is being observed in a controlled environment. Even though the doctor has the control of everything, the results are less likely to be accurate because they are not in natural habitat. How do researchers design useful surveys? They must have a sample that incorporates a representative of the population in which the results will be applied. These surveys also avoid questions that would sway a reader towards one side. Strengths and weaknesses to the correlational method? Correlation is a method of research used to establish a degree of relationships between two characteristics, events and behaviors. Mutual relationship. This method when correlation is known about one variable then you can predict the other but it can’t be used as a conclusion that -strength of it relates to the absolute value -usually shown in graphs -positive correlation is when the things line up (height to weight) -negative correlation the more time you spend in therapy the LESS you are anxious -ABSOLUTE VALUE that determines the strength of it on -1 to 1 chart -when new find a relationship between stress and illness, missing work and school making it worse could be that both are happening at the same time could be a third variable that you didn’t study that could be effecting both How do researchers use experiments to test casual hypothesis? -experimental method ONLY METHOD TO DETERMINE CAUSE + EFFECT something is manipulated by the researcher to determine the effect it has on the subject also comparing to other similar groups to try and hypothesis conclusions Experimental method -independent variable-thing that’s manipulated -dependent-are the variables that are measured -compares treatment to control group ONLY METHOD TO DETERMINE CAUSE + EFFECT Limitations to experimental method? -biases, random assignment can help fix this -also experimenter bias, might handle or treat subjects different, even subconsciously -can fix this when the experimenter also doesn’t know who getting treatment and who isn’t -placebo effect (people’s influences/expectations messing with the experiment) -experiments are conducted in unnatural places -manipulated unnatural -Quasi-experiment, used when random is not possible -have to make sure representatives are of the population -you need to be aware of race, gender, education, socioeconomic status How can a participant characteristics influence a study’s usefulness? -a large group can be unrepresented -women are often not represented How do researchers protect human + animal rights? -have to follow laws and regulations -have to get consent -participants must have access to data/study -coercion can never be ethically used -need debriefing to be available CHAPTER 2 primitive central core of our brain, basic life-maintaining processes Controls temp, metabolism, respiration, equilibrium all control by this part of brain Oldest oart of brain Second oldest “old brain” (the limbic system) fear responses the four F’s of survival Amygdala, hippocampus and part of the thalamus and hypothalamus 4 F’s feeding fight or flight mating (fucking) new brain (the cerebrum) higher mental functions the cerebrum has two hemispheres (left and right) which are connected by the corpus callosum cerebrum houses the high8er mental process like Frontal lobe Largest Contains prefrontal cortex Motor cortex-voluntary body movement Broccas area =speech production Frontal association area-judgment personality attention, abstract through Parietal lobe Somatosensory cortex- pressure, pain, temperature, movement and orientation in space Occipital lobe Primary visual cortex=where we see Temporal Hear Contain primary auditory cortex = where we hear Wernicks areas = speech reception, comprehension Age changes We eliminate unnecessary synapses Synaptogenesis & pruning (use it or loss it) Myelination Hemispheric specialization Plasticity Endocrine system Pituitary gland-controls growth Pineal-in the brain, “third eye” regulates sleep, when it sees that its dark it releases melatonin, sleep hormone Thyroid-regulates metabolism Parathyroid-mineral absorption Thymus-gland in immune system Pancreas-regulates blood sugar Adrenals-fight or flight response, small amounts of sex hormones Gonads-ovaries and testacies, sex hormones Behavioral genetics -genotype (genes) VS phenotype (trait) -dominant-recessive pattern, have to have two recessives to display the trait -polygenetic inheritance=multifactorial, both nature and nurture CHAPTER 4 STATES OF CONCIOUSNESS Consciousness-awareness of how you feel Circadian rhythm=cyclical changes in arousal approximating a 24-hour day -body temp and alertness (fluctuates on schedule) Altered state of consciousness- Sleep, meditation, hypnosis drugs -Universal goal of many cultures and societies -lowering body temp helps us to fall asleep and stay asleep HOW DOES INTERNAL CLOCK GET RESET? Environmental cues reset us everyday To reduce jet lag Get a 5-hour dose of bright sunlight Fly west if possible For shift changes, it is best to rotate forward Students-don’t cram it’s not worth the sleep loss Larks vs owls Types of sleeping patterns that you have. Larks, wake up early, owls sleep more need more sleep Larks have highest body temp in the morning (about 25% of pop) Owls have highest body temp in the evening (25%) Others are 50% in between Why do we need sleep? Restorative=chemical synthesis and cell repair Circadian (adaptive evolutionary)-sleep evolved to keep us quiet at night Sleepiness is determined by the time of day and how long it has been since you’ve slept -supports each theory EEG reveals two major types of sleep NONREM (NREM)-slowing down of all body processes REM-resembles the waking state, rapid eye movement BRAIN WAVES -awake and alert-beta waves -quiet resting state- alpha waves -deeper sleep-delta waves 1.slow, low-voltage EEG, relaxing 2.further slowing and relaxing 3. slow, high-voltage delta waves start 4.more than 50%delta waves REM SLEEP=no delta waves, muscle paralysis, except for sex organs of both sexes Cycles once every 90 minutes 1,2,3,4,3,2, REM ,2,3,4 Don’t go from stage 4 straight to rem Age changes are that stage 3 and 4 are decreased 1,2,1,REM REM is paradoxical sleep WHY WE NEED REM Consolidation of memory Aid learning Helps divergent thinking Reduces stress organizes connection within the brain REM only occurs in mammals REM rebound = goes into rem faster and dream or have vivid night mares much more than normal to catch up on rem sleep Developmental sleep changes Infants/young kids have the longest sleep time and highest percentage of REM sleep Kids 6-puberty = most consistent sleepers Quantity and quality of sleep decreases with age SLEEP DISORDERS Paraosomnias- Somnambulism-sleepwalking Sleep terrors/night terrors (stage 4) Somniloquy-sleep talking Dyssomias (major problems) Narcolepsy=fall asleep suddenly Sleep apnea-cessation of breathing (not breathing) Insomnia=problems falling or staying asleep due to drugs or situation Dreaming -Dreams are stranger and moe emotional than real life because the prefrontal cortex is inactive, emotional/visual centers are active -lucid dreaming =we can learn to control the hallucinations we are experiencing the meanings of dreams -freuds manifest content=surface/visible content, images as recalled by dreamer -latent content=underlined symbolic meaning o the dream theories of dreaming -cognitive=thinking while we are asleep Activation-synthesis hypothesis (Hobson & Mccarley)= we are as humans, pre wired to make sense of the things that the neuron firings that are happening at the moment Evolutionary theory-rehearse survival skills MEDITATION =quieting mind and body to benefit mood, cardiovascular health Tighten muscles then release and this helps you relax Hypnosis-can help with main, morning sickness, DID, PTSD, warts, burns, nightmares, sexual dysfunctions Theories of hypnosis Socioconitive=subject is fulfilling role Neodissociation=monitoring is “silent observer” planning function, can respond to subject Dissociated control-weakens control over executive function, movements become involuntary Psychoactive drug-a substance that will alter move or thoughts, can be controlled prescription, street drugs, or OTC drug or herbal remedy, alcohol Individual drug effects -opiates manage pain depressants have calming effect stimulants suppress hunger, mimic SNS arousal ADDICTION Substance abuse=using to excess or indiscriminately (interferes with a person’s social functioning) Withdrawal effects are usually opposite of the effect of the stimulant Drugs hurt the processes that addict need to break the pattern of addiction (memory, planning, control) Stimulants- Caffeine-alertness, clarity of thought Nicotine-alertness; highly addictive but a patch may help Amphetamines- arousal appetite suppressant high doses confusion, fear, aggression, Cocaine-euphoria, very brief effect, intense after effects of depression anxiety and craving Depressants Alcohol-in high doses depressed brain activity Barbiturates-drowsiness, confusion easy to overdose Minor tranquilizers-highly addictive, decrease anxiety, memory impairment and confusion in some people Narcotics-euphoria withdrawal=physically sick to stomach Hallucinogens Marijuana-attention, reaction time, STM impairment; medicinal uses LSD-distortions of senses panic can cause death, suicide, flashbacks, Designers drugs-have hallucinogenic and stimulant effects, lead to fatal overdoses How do psychologists view consciousness? Early psychologists saw consciousness, or awareness as psychological in nature. Freud distinguished between conscious and unconscious experiences. James emphasized the continuous flow of thought and feeling in each consciousness. Today’s psy view consciousness as a neurobiological phenomenon rather than an exclusively psychological one. Altered states of consciousness- change in awareness produced by sleep, motivational, hypnosis or drugs What is the connection between altered states of consciousness and culture? Practices in many cultures allow individuals to deliberately induce altered states often as tribal groups. How do circadian rhythms affect physiological and psychological function? the suprachiasmatic nucleus is the body’s biological clock. Which regulates the circadian rhtyms and signals the pineal gland to secrete or suppress secretion of melatonin a hormone that acts to induce sleep. The amount of melatonin released by the pineal gland depends on the amount to f light perceived by specialized photoreceptors cells on the retina. How do disruptions in the circadian rhythms affect the body and mind? Jet lag effects the circadian rhythms’ which can lead to sleep difficulties as well as reduced alertness during periods of wakefulness. How do the restorative and circadian theories explain sleep? The restorative claims that being awake causes stress on the body and brain, repairs are made during sleep The circadian theory maintains that circadian rhythms during the night dictate periods of sleep and alertness. Sleep evolved to get humans out of harm’s way during the night What types of sleep occur during a typical night of sleep? NREM sleep-four sleep stages characterized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement and blood pressure in the brain activity that are at their 24-hour low points Alpha wave- the brain wave pattern associated with deep relaxation. Beta waves- the brain wave pattern associated with mental activity Sleep spindles-sleep stage 2 brain waves that feature short periods of calm interrupted by brief flashes of intense activity Slow-wave sleep-dep sleep associated with stages 3 +4 Stage 4 sleep-the deepest state of NREM characterized by a EEG pattern of more than 50% of delta waves REM-rapid eye movement, a type of sleep characterized by movements parallelization, fast eye movement, irregular heart beat and respiration rates REM rebound- the increased amount of REM sleep that occurs after REM deprivation 5 sleep cycles each lasting about 90 minutes, NREM and REM, REM large muscle so the boys are paralyzed, respiration and heart rate are fast an irregular, brain activity increased, vivid dreams also occur during this time How does age influence sleep patterns? Infants and young children have the longest sleep time and largest percentages of REM and slow-wave sleep. Children from age 6-puberty sleep best. Older adults typically have shorter total sleep time, more awakenings and substantially less slow-wave sleep. What are the effects of sleep deprivation? Can lead to lapses in concentration and emotional instability. Research examining the effects of sleep deprivation on verbal learning have shown that sleep deprivation may lead to suppression of neurological activity in the temporal lobes
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