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Week 5; Wednesday; Finishing up chapter 8

by: Hinds Notetaker

Week 5; Wednesday; Finishing up chapter 8 PSYC 2500-001

Marketplace > East Tennessee State University > Psychology > PSYC 2500-001 > Week 5 Wednesday Finishing up chapter 8
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Today we continued chapter 8 slides and talked a lot about phobias and how they start.
Behavior Analysis
Robin Leonard
Class Notes
phobia, conditioning, higher-order-conditioning, trace-conditioning, simultaneous, pavlovian conditioning, backward-conditioning, habituation
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
9/21/2016 Wednesday Processes in Classical Conditioning: Extinction Extinction: gradual decrease and elimination of the CR when the CS is presented  repeatedly without the UCS ­ With Pavlov’s dogs, you ring the bell several times without giving them food and  they will no longer respond by salivating Processes in Respondent (/Classical) Conditioning  Processes in Classical Conditioning:  Spontaneous Recovery­ sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay ­you can go to the empire state building and have a reoccurring fear of heights; if  it is rewarded in that moment and leads to unconditioned stimulus in that moment you will be  right back where you started Same thing at 2 different levels: Habituation: the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging  unconditioned stimuli­ brain and processing Sensory Adaptation: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging­ sensory organs: eyes, ears, nose­  if there is an unchanging smell, your nose/brain will stop responding to it ­light colored eyes let in more light so it’s harder to adjust to bright lights Higher Order Conditioning Higher­ Order Conditioning: a neutral stimulus (NS) is paired with a conditioned  stimulus (CS) and then the neutral stimulus becomes as a CS that will elicit the same C Ex: another option for extinguishing a certain behavior Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning *Best way to understand this material is by understanding your own particular behaviors  or even people you know ­ The nature of the NS and US­ has to do with previous exposure to the stimulus; some  sounds are distinctive and are a more reliable indicator of the stimulus ­ Timing of the NS and the US      Trace conditioning “only one that works well; animals especially”­ ring the bell,  give the food+ ring the bell, give the food o Delay conditioning o Simultaneous conditioning­ ring bell and give food at same time, but you aren’t  really giving time to respond to bell o Backward conditioning­ doesn’t work at all with animals­ good then bell, food  then bell 9/21/2016 Wednesday ­ Consistent pairing of the NS and US­ if every time you hear a bell you get food, you will  respond to bells­ not if it’s only sometimes.  ­ Exposure to the NS­ You need to do this like 20 times unless it’s related to survivor value (threat to well­being like taste aversion or a phobia that threatens you) Biology and Classical Conditioning ­Preparedness: idea that an organism is innately predisposed to learn associations between  certain stimuli and responses ­taste­aversion: development of a dislike or aversion to a flavor or food that has been  paired with illness ­phobia: an extreme, irrational fear of an object Note: you would not become afraid of dogs as an adult if you have had many other  positive experiences with dogs; however, if you were 2 years old and attacked by one you would  always be afraid of dogs. Being attacked by anything when encountering it for the first time will  create a phobia rapidly.  EX: you can treat phobias that have been conditioned into someone by pairing those  things with things that the person likes; or presenting the conditioned stimulus without the  unconditioned stimulus following ­  A lot of people don’t remember where their phobias come from because they  originated before the age of 3 ­ A fear of heights can originate from being dropped as a baby Conditioned Emotional Responses ­ Conditioned Emotional Response (CER): a type of conditioned response in which an  emotional response, such as fear, anger, or happiness, is elicited by a conditioned  stimulus Discrimination and Generalization of Respondent Behavior ­Discrimination Training: the conditioned response is elicited by a single conditioned stimulus or a narrow range of conditioned stimuli ­Generalization: the tendency for the conditioned response to occur in the presence of  stimuli  Contrasting Respondent and Operant Conditioning  ­Response is elicited ­Response is emitted ­Controlled by antecedents  9/21/2016 Wednesday ­controlled by consequences ­conditioning involves pairing two stimuli  ­conditioning involves pairing a response & a  stimulus


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