New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 6 Psychology Book Notes

by: Shaylyn Bradshaw

Chapter 6 Psychology Book Notes psy-1013-2

Marketplace > Southwest Baptist University > Psychology (PSYC) > psy-1013-2 > Chapter 6 Psychology Book Notes
Shaylyn Bradshaw

View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Psychology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Psychology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

General Psychology
W. Walkup
Class Notes




Popular in General Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shaylyn Bradshaw on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy-1013-2 at Southwest Baptist University taught by W. Walkup in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Southwest Baptist University.

Similar to psy-1013-2 at

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


Reviews for Chapter 6 Psychology Book Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/21/16
Chapter 6 Book outline  I. What is learning  a) Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior to make  a response that occurs as a result of experience   II. Classical Conditioning   a) Learning that occurs when two stimuli (conditioned and  unconditioned) are paired and become associated with each  other  B. The Basic Elements of Classical Conditioning   a) Neutral Stimulus (NS) stimulus that, before conditioning,  does not elicit a particular response   b) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that automatically  produces a response without any previous training  c) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Neutral stimulus  that acquires  ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with  an unconditional stimulus   d) Unconditioned response (UCR): Reaction that is  automatically produced when an unconditioned stimulus is  presented.  e) Conditioned Response (CR): Response elicited by a  conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an  unconditioned stimulus is similar to unconditioned response   2. Conditioning Your Friends   C. Classical Conditioning  1. Acquisition  2. Sequence of CS­UCS Presentation  3. Strength of the UCS  4. Number of the CS­UCS  5. Extinction  6. Spontaneous Recovery   a) Reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of  time  7. Generalization and Discrimination  a) Generalization: occurrence of responses to stimuli that are  similar to a CS  b) Discrimination: occurrence of responses only to a specific  CS  D. Applications of Classical Conditioning: Phobias and Beyond  a) Phobia: Irrational fear of an activity, object or situation that is  out of proportion to the actual danger posed   2. Classical Conditioning and Drug tolerance  3. Classical conditioning of our attitudes  E. Classical Conditioning after Pavlov  1. Contingency theory  2. Blocking   a) Situation in which the conditionability of a CS is weakened  when it is paired with a USC that has previously been paired  with another CS.   F. Evolution and Classical conditioning: taste­aversion learning and  preparedness  1. Taste Aversion  a) Taste­aversion learning: development of a dislike of or  aversion to a flavor or food that has been with illness  III. Operant COnditioning  a) Operant conditioning: learning that occurs when the  participant must make a response to produce a change in  the environment  B. Reinforcers: basic concept of operant conditioning  a) Law of effect: thornlikes view that reinforcers promote  learning, whereas punishers lead to the unlearning of  responses   b) Reinforcer: event or stimulus that increases the frequency of  the response that it follows  2. Positive and Negative Reinforcers  a) Positive: event or stimulus presented after the target  response that increases the likelihood that this response will  occur again  3. Negative Reinforcers  a) Event or stimulus after the target response, thereby  increasing the likelihood of response occurring again.   4. Plus and Minus Reinforcers expressed as contingencies  5. Positive reinforcement  a) INcrease in frequency of target response that occurs when  behavior is followed by presentation of a positive reinforcer   6. Negative Reinforcement  a) Occurs when a negative reinforcer is removed or terminated;  escape conditioned and avoidance conditioned are  examples  7. Primary and secondary (Conditioned) Reinforcers  a) Primary reinforcer: stimulus that has innate reinforcing  properties   b) Secondary Reinforcer: stimulus that acquires reinforcing  properties by being associated with a primary reinforcer  C. Beyond the Basics  a) Shaping: form of operant conditioning in which a desired  response is taught by reinforcement of successive  responses that more closely response that target response   2. The Premack Principle   3. Extinction   a) General term for the reduction and elimination of behaviors  b) Interval schedule: reinforcement schedule based on the  passage of the time and in which a single response at the  end of the designated interval is reinforced  c) Particle reinforcement effect: phenomenon in which  extinction of an operant response following partial or  intermittent reinforcement takes longer than extinction  following continuous reinforcement   4. Delayed Reinforcement and discounting   D. Punishment: the opposite of reinforcement  a) Punisher: stimulus that produces a decrease in responding;  may take the form of presentation of a stimulus or  termination of a stimulus  b) Punishment: process of using a punisher to decrease the  response rate.   E. Applications of Operant Conditioning Principles  1. Autism and applied behavioral analysis (ABA)   a) Applied behavioral analysis (ABA): therapeutic approach that  uses the concepts of operant conditioning to modify  behaviors.   b) Discrete trial training: component of applied behavioral  analysis that identifies a specific antecedents and  reinforcements to successively shape the desired behavior  2. Addiction disorders and contingency management therapy  a) Contingency management: therapeutic approach used in the  treatment of drug addiction that works to reduce through a  highly structured reinforcement and punishment program  IV. Cognitive and Social perspective on learning  A. Role of Cognition   1. Insight Learning  a) Sudden grasp of a concept or the solution to a problem that  results from perceptual restructuring   2. Latent learning  a) Learning that has occurred but is not demonstrated  B. Observational Learning  a) (Modeling): learning that occurs through watching and  imitating the behaviors of others  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.