Week 7 Notes
Popular in Cultural Aspects of FDNS
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNDS 4630 at University of Georgia taught by Hea Park in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Notes f or FDNS 4630 CRN15786 (Week 6 9/19 -9/23 ) Monday: Islam- religion “submission to will of God” Muslim- people who follow Islam “one who submits” • Second largest religion in the world (largest- Christianity) third: Hinduism • 1.6 billion followers worldwide • Muslims are expected to grow twice as fast as the overall global population- high fertility rate of Muslims relative to other religious groups • Dominant religion in Indonesia, Middle East, Pakistan, North and East Africa • It seems like India has a high population of India. They have millions of Muslims, but the total population is really big, so the percentage of Muslims is not that high. • 2.5 million in US >1% Islam in the US • Most Muslims in the US are Sunnis • Ethnic origins (African American=30%, South-Central Asian=33%, Arab=25%) Central Belief of Islam Belief in one God- Allah 4 Fundamental Functions of Allah • Creation • Sustenance • Guidance • Judgment Overall purpose of a Muslim’s life -to serve Allah, to worship him and to develop inner moral quality Quran (Koran): Muslims follow the sacred writings compiled in the Quran that include the Islamic dietary laws like the Halal Islam • Mohammed -Islam’s founder -Neither a savior nor a messiah, but rather a prophet through whom God delivered his messages -Quran contains the words spoken by Allah through Mohammed -Mohammed is the messenger of Allah • There is no priest. Every Muslim can communicate directly with got so a mediator is not needed Religious Practices Five Pillars of Islam • Faith -There is no God but Allah • Prayer -5 times daily, facing Mecca • Almsgiving -To help the poor or support Islam in other countries • Fasting -A religious obligation • Pilgrimage to Mecca -Once in a lifetime Sects of Islam (there are 5 big sects) Major: • Sunni (the largest denomination of Islam, 85-90%) • Shi’ah (Shi’ia, the second largest group) Major differences • Rightful caliph (spiritual/political leader post-Muhammad) (One sect said Muhammad’s father in law, one says Muhammad’s son in law) • Doctrine Islamic Dietary Code (all written in Quran) All foods are permitted unless specifically prohibited Laws based on: cleanliness, sanitation, and purity Food Classifications: • Halal -Permitted • Haram- Prohibited • Mushbooh- Suspected. A Muslim is encouraged to avoid the item Islamic Dietary Laws • Eating is a matter of worship • A person should only eat two-thirds of their capacity • Sharing food is encouraged • Hands and mouth are washed before and after meals • Right hand only for eating; left hand is unclean Haram: unlawful or prohibited • All swine • 4 footed animals that catch their prey with their mouths • Birds of prey • By-products of these animals -Pork gelatin -Enzymes used in cheese-making • Any questionable by-product is avoided • Improperly slaughtered animals -Slaughter similar to that of Jewish laws -Name of Allah said at the instant of slaughter • Fish and seafood are exempt • Cannot eat meat where any name other than God’s mentioned during slaughter • Blood and blood products • Alcoholic beverages • Intoxicating drugs (unless medically necessary) • Use of stimulants discouraged (no coffee, tea, smoking) Muslim ritual slaughter • Select healthy, halal animal (cattle, sheep, goat, deer- cloven foot-chew cud; poultry) • Must be killed according to ritual laws • Slaughterer must cite Allah’s name as throat is cut • Reminds us: all forms of life are sanctified; killing to satisfy hunger is done only with Allah’s permission Not all Kosher foods are Halal foods; not all Halal foods are Kosher foods Ingredients of concern Meats and all by-products must be from Halal animals slaughtered according to Islamic rites • Emulsifiers, including Lecithin • Gelatin • Enzymes • Shortening/fat • Glycerine Dietary Practices- Fasting Fasting- abstain from food, drink, smoke; sexual abstinence from dawn until sundown Who fasts- all past puberty (15) Excluded: sick with recoverable illness, traveling, pregnancy, labor, elderly, insane, hard labor Why fast? • Fulfill religious obligation • Seek pleasure of Allah • Wipe out previous sins • Appreciate hunger of poor and needy • Self discipline • Humility Fast Days- Ramadan • 9 month of Islamic calendar • Fasting from dawn to sunset • Suhur: the pre-dawn meal • Iftar: the meat at sunset that breaks the fast • To commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad • One of the Five Pillars of Islam • Increased prayer and charity during Ramadan Other fast days • 6 days during Shawwal • 10 day of Muhurram th • 9 day of Zul Hijjah Voluntary Fast • Usually Monday and Thursdays • Never fast excessively or on Fridays • It is undesirable for Muslims to fast excessively because Allah provides food and drink to consume Festival/Feast Days Major: • Eidal-Fitr: Celebrates the end of Ramadan • Eid al-Azha: the Festival of Sacrifice Other feast days: • Births • Marriages • When a child begins reading the Quranic alphabet • Circumcision of boy • Harvest • Death Hinduism and Buddhism developed in India. Goal: liberation of the soul from the bondage of the body Western religions: reaching to God Hinduism • World’s oldest religion • Basis for other religions 1. Sikhism 2. Jainism 3. Buddhism • >1 billion adherents worldwide • World’s 3 religion after Christianity and Islam • 2.3 million adherents in US • Today most Hindus live in India (80% of population), its birthplace Hinduism Sacred text: Vedas Four parts: 1. Rigveda: about spirit and meditation 2. Aathavaveda: about money and how to deal with it in society 3. Yajurveda: about diet and health- what’s good and what’s bad 4. Samaveda: concern the law and society- Cast system derived from Samaveda One Supreme Being • Brahma- the creator • Vishnu- the preserver • Shiva- the destroyer Trimurti: Trinity of the Supreme Being. Cosmic function of creation, maintenance, and destruction Many deities Reincarnation: religious concept that the soul or spirit can begin a new life in a new body after biological death. Although you’re in a new body, you’re still you, because your previous life decides and affects your current life. • Karma- one’s present life is the result of what one thought or did in one’s past life Goal in Hindu’s Life • Become one with the universal spirit or Supreme Being • Reach liberation or moksha (Nirvana in Buddhism) • For most Hindus, moksha is the highest goal • Moksha means release from samsara (birth-rebirth cycle) • Moksha is achieved through union with God Principles of Hinduism (ohm- I am) (Vegas starts with ohm and ends with ohm) Ohm is a solemn and sacred exclamation. Representation of trinity of god. Chanting ohm is a purifying experience • Purity • Self-control • Detachment • Truth • Nonviolence Purity -Ceremonial goal and moral ideal -Elaborate rules regarding food and drink Self-control -Governs flesh and mind -Regulates appetites and cravings Detachment -Detach from this physical existence -Highest aspect of self-control Truth -Pursuit of truth necessary for progress of man Ahimsa: Non-violence, not to inquire, compassion applies to all living beings including animals -Vegetarianism Mahatma Gandhi taught that nonviolence must be practices not only by individuals, but also communities and nations “People are different” 4 castes • Cast system described in Vedas • Caste system hierarchy Idea was to construct an ideal society ranking people by spiritual progress and culture • Brahmins- learned people, priests (the highest caste has the most dietary restrictions) • Kshatriyas- soldiers, administrators • Vaishyas- merchants, farmers • Shudras- laborers, servants Outside of caste system= Dalits- untouchables The four castes are represented as forming parts of the Creator’s body: mouth, arms, thighs, and feet. The untouchables were created from darkness that Brahma discarded in the process of creation. Hindu Dietary Practices • Avoid foods believed to hamper development of the body or mental abilities • Bad food habits prevent reaching mental purity and communion • Dietary restrictions and attitudes vary Do not want to pollute bodies Purity is one of the principles of Hinduism • Many are vegetarians • Cows are sacred and never consumed • Often avoid pork • No crabs, snails, crocodiles • Numerous birds restricted • No fish with ugly form or porpoises • No antelopes and camels • No bats and boars • No garlic, turnips, onions, mushrooms, red foods (moderation- not something that is strong_ • Avoid alcohol Seven taboos of food preparation and consumption 1. With whom one eats -Eat with same caste -Purity means person has bathed -Kitchen considered sacred- all who enter must bathe/put on clean clothes 2. Who prepares the food - Woman has primary duty -Women during menses not allowed to cook or have contact with family -Not allowed to cook for about 10 days after childbirth 3. What food is prepared -Purity determined by ingredients -Milk is pure -Raw foods are pure if protected by a peel -Pakka food: Fried foods- more pure than baked, boiled or steamed foods (especially if fried in ghee, ghee is a product from a cow and has insulating properties against pollution and impurity) 4. What are the ritual observances -Hands washed before and after (also mouth and feet) - Foods are prepared, eaten with right hand, no knives on table -Numerous fasting days- depends on your status (women more likely to practice fasting) each god has its own preference 5. From whom does one accept water -Water identified as nectar in the Vedas -Water usually filtered and boiled prior to consumption 6. With whom does one share a pipe 7. What vessel one uses -Served in Thali- round plate Common Food taboos Consumption of bad/polluting foods will prevent a person from reaching the goal of mental purity Food: left out overnight, cooked twice, leftovers Any food touched by feet, alcohol Many symbolic foods • Rice, bananas- fertility • Betal leaves- auspiciousness and prosperity • Ghee- purity • Salt- hospitality and pleasantness • Mango- hospitality and auspiciousness • Betal nuts (areca nuts), coconuts- hospitality, sacredness, auspiciousness Hindu Festivals • 18 major festivals every year Divali (Diwali)- most universal festival, festival of lights Sweet meats, milk-based Dussehra- Victory of Prince Rama Lentils Holi- Spring equinox- Krishna’s triumph Mangoes, condensed milk Fasting practices vary based on your caste, family, sex, age • no food or abstaining from specific foods or meals • Numerous fast days -Including the anniversary of the death of one’s father and mother and Sundays -A lunar calendar so dates change Religion comes from the existing culture What is the rationale of meat taboos? Socio-ecological theory (Marvin Harris)- doesn’t have to do with religion 1. Certain animals benefit the community more alive than dead à culture develops a spiritual prohibition to protect the animals from being eaten during economically difficult times (Cows in India) 2. An animal competes with people for food (Ruminants such as cows, goats, sheep eat cellulose in plants unavailable to human, whereas pigs eat the same food as humans) 3. An animal is inappropriate to raise in a region (Before 1900 BCE, pigs were raised in Middle East à The population expanded and the forests were cut downà Pigs do not thrive in hot, dry climateà Pigs become unpopular) Part of “Omnivore’s Paradox” • Humans often tend to eat what is familiar as a protective behavior and avoid an animal seen as different or unusual, such as pigs Socioeconomic theory • Cows primary power source for rural farming communities and dung provides fuel
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