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BIO 105 Week 2 Notes

by: Jenna Loehrer

BIO 105 Week 2 Notes BIO 105

Jenna Loehrer
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes are on Exam 1.
Biology in the Modern World
Jennifer Landin
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Loehrer on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 105 at North Carolina State University taught by Jennifer Landin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Biology in the Modern World in Earth Sciences at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
    Biodiversity and Classification​ 8/22­8/24  ● Normal extinction rate: 100 species/ year  ● Current extinction rate: 100,000 species/ year    ● Extinction:​ decline in biodiversity    Holocene extinction (over past 10,000 years): current 6th extinction event  ● Causes:  ○ Overhunting (ex. megafauna)  ○ Habitat destruction/ climate (Largest reasons of extinction today****)  ○ Pollution  ○ Introduced species and diseases  ● %’s of lost species in current extinction event  ○ 15­20% of known mammals and birds  ○ 30­40% of known amphibians, reptiles, fish, and insects  ○ 70% of known plants  ● Increase in human population = increase in extinction rates    Increased biodiversity = increased stability = increased survival ****    Classification (Grouping/ Labeling Life)  ● Traditional knowledge based upon appearance  ○ Used until 1750  ● Science used for research in 1750 to bring plants from around world   ○ Caused controversy  ● Domain Most General  ○ Kingdom  ■ Phylum  ● Class  ○ Order  ■ Family  ● Genus  ○ Species Most Specific  ● Mnemonic Memory Tool: Did King Philip Come Over For Great Sex?                  Biodiversity and Classification​ 8/22­8/24  Domain: d ​ ivided by cell structure  ○ Domain Bacteria (prokaryote)  ○ Domain Archaea (prokaryote)  ○ Domain Eukaryota (Eukaryote) → humans, combination of Bacteria and Archaea  ■ Prokaryote: no organelles (no nucleus)  ■ Eukaryote: organelles present  Kingdom:​ divided by food acquisition  ● Domain Eukaryota → kingdoms: plant, animal, fungus, protist  ○ Plants: photosynthesis  ○ Animals: ingestion  ○ Fungi: absorption   ○ Protist: traditionally unicellular, fall under all 3 other kingdoms  Species names  ● Common names do not match “Species” (e.g. dolphin, ladybug, robin, oak, maple)  ○ Common names v. Scientific names  ■ Common names refer to many species  ● Different places/languages = different common names  ● Some species aren’t common (no name)  ■ Scientific name = “binomial nomenclature”  ● Genus     + species        = Scientific Name  ● (Capital)   (Lowercase)     (Italics)  ● Latin  Species definition:​ a group of organisms that breed in nature and produce viable offspring  **TEST**  ● Problems with definition  ○ Sexually reproducing only  ○ “in nature”?  ○ Range of traits (species vs. breed/variety/race) – some diff sp. can breed  ● Life History traits = different ways of obtaining & spending energy  ○ E.g. active time, food (& digestion), habitat, reproduction  ○ To reproduce, must interact (see life history traits), parts must fit, “attractiveness”  & behaviors, Genetic survival of offspring  ○ Traits = genes ​(genes mix within species; don’t mix between species)  ● Where do species come from? ​Diverging populations  ○ Population = subset of a species that interacts frequently  ■ As species expands → move into different habitats  ■ Different habitats, different traits survive  ■ Overtime, separation in reproduction (e.g. ring species)  Reproduction: ​common collect of traits (genes)      Biodiversity and Classification​ 8/22­8/24  ● Most important aspect of determining “species”   ● Genes mix within species  ● Genes don’t mix between species  ● Species create when one species divides    Population:​ subset of a species that interacts frequently (NOT entire species)  ● Where species come from  ● Population increases in number = expands range = less frequent interactions  ● Less frequent interactions + different habitats = different traits  ● More different traits, less/no breeding (genes don’t mix)  ● No breeding = different species      Animals ​8/24    Learning Outcomes:  ● Identify traits all animals share  ● Differentiate major characteristics between each of the 8 phyla we covered; identify  examples of each phylum; relate different strategies to energy  ● List the 5 vertebrate classes and describe when each appeared in the fossil record  ● Compare the 3 major reproductive strategies of mammals; give examples of each    Similarities and Differences Between Animals  ● Similarities:   ○ Multicellular and ingests other organisms  ● Differences:  ○ Digestive tract  ○ Levels of complexity  ○ Environment      ● Kingdom Animalia – multicellular eukaryotes, ingest food  ○ Phylum Cnidaria (e.g. jellyfish)  ■ Cell differentiation: two types of tissues (division of labor; cells must  work together)  ■ Incomplete digestive tract  ○ Phylum Porifera (sponges)  ■ Cell differentiation: none  ■ Just one type of tissue  ○ Worm Phyla – all have 3 tissues & centralized nervous system  ■ Platyhelminthes (flatworms)  ● Exchange gasses & distribute food via diffusion (simple, ↓ energy)  ■ Nematodes (roundworms)  ● Complete digestive tract – allows continual intake of food  ■ Annelids (segmented worms)  ● Segmentation allows for specialization of structures  ○ Phylum Mollusca  ■ Snails, bivalves & octopuses (advanced nervous system)  ○ Phylum Arthropoda   ■ Insects, spiders, millipedes, crustaceans  ■ Insects = vast majority of animal life (75%)  ■ Segmented body parts/legs = specialized structures  ○ Phylum Echinoderm (e.g. starfish, sand dollar, sea urchin)  ■ Closest relative to Vertebrates  ○ Phylum Chordata/ Vertebrates      Animals ​8/24    ■ Class Fish (fossils 500mya) – most numerous vertebrates  ■ Class Amphibians (fossils 400mya) – e.g. frogs, salamanders  ■ Class Reptiles (fossils 300mya) – e.g. turtles, lizards, snakes  ■ Class Mammals (fossils 200mya)  ● Monotremes – mammals lay eggs (e.g. platypus, echidna)  ● Marsupials – birth underdeveloped young, complete development  in pouch (e.g. kangaroo, opossum)  ● Placentals – full development in uterus (most mammals)   ○ rodents most numerous  ■ Class Birds (fossils 150mya) – most “advanced” vertebrates (most derived  traits)  ● Birds are the last surviving dinosaurs       Plants 8/26    Learning Outcomes:  ● Explain why so many medicines (and narcotics) come from plants  ● Describe major evolutionary shifts between plant groups (vascular tissue, pollen, fruits);  be able to categorize a novel plant into one of the four phyla based on characteristics  ● Differentiate between fruits & vegetables according to botanical definitions  ● Relate plant cellular processes to plant functions and abilities; explain photosynthesis  (how cells  ● get reactants & what happens to products)    Summary:  1. Importance of Plants  a. Food & oxygen  b. Ecosystem functions: base of food web, reduce erosion, add nitrogen  c. Agriculture  d. Paper/books, clothing, building materials  e. Medicine  2. Plant chemicals  a. Defense (& offense)  b. Communication   3. Plant Cells  a. Chloroplast = green  i. Photosynthesis (CO2 + H2O + sun energy → O2 + sugars)  ii. Sugars = cell energy for metabolism & building blocks for other  molecules (e.g. cellulose)  1. Mass of plant from water and CO2!!!  2. Animals eating plants take sugars (cell energy & building blocks)  iii. Oxygen is a waste product (not made FOR animals)  b. Water vacuole & cellulose cell wall  i. Allow water storage & support  4. Phyla of plants  a. Mosses  i. Fossils from ~400mya  ii. First land plants  iii. No vascular tissue (small)  b. Ferns  i. Fossils from ~300mya  ii. Vascular Tissue & stomata (limit water loss)  1. Allows taller growth; like circulatory system      Plants 8/26    2. Xylem – water moves up plants (roots → leaves/stomata);  transpiration  3. Phloem – sugars move down plant (leaves → stem/roots)  iii. Swimming sperm  c. Conifers (like pines)  i. Fossils from ~200mya  ii. Vascular tissue & stomata  iii. Pollen (no water required)  iv. Wind pollinated (massive energy for lots of pollen)  d. Flowering plants  i. Fossils from ~100 mya  ii. Vascular tissue & stomata  iii. Pollen  iv. Symbiotic relationship with pollinators (less energy in pollen) and seed  v. distributers (faster, further distribution)  e. Fruit vs. Vegetable  i. Fruits grow from flower’s ovary (contain seeds)  ii. Vegetables grow from vegetative part of plant (leaves, stems, roots)   


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