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BIO 105 Week 3 Notes

by: Jenna Loehrer

BIO 105 Week 3 Notes BIO 105

Jenna Loehrer
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes will be on Exam 1
Biology in the Modern World
Jennifer Landin
Class Notes
species, interactions, kingdom, Biology
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Loehrer on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 105 at North Carolina State University taught by Jennifer Landin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biology in the Modern World in Earth Sciences at North Carolina State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Microscopic Life 8/29 ­ 8/31    Learning Outcomes:  ● Describe the historical significance surrounding the invention of the microscope  ● Explain why bacteria and algae are so important (to humans and to the ecosystem)  ● Relate protists to multicellular Kingdoms  ● Match fungal structures with their functions; compare/contrast fungal cells to plant &  animal cells    ● Kingdom Protista­ divided by how they receive energy    ● Importance of the Microscope  ○ Most important invention – changed our understanding of “life”  ○ ~1650 Anton van Leeuwenhoek (“Father of Microscopy), published  ​ Micrographia; Coined term “cell”  ○ Robert Hooke  ● Bacteria  ○ VAST majority of life  ○ Many are decomposers  ○ Human relationships:  ■ Beneficial:  ● Digestive system symbiosis  ● Food production  ● Sewage‐treatment  ● Bioremediation (clean up pollution)  ○ Ex: oil spill and industrial waste  ● Genetic engineering  ○ Ex: bioremediation and medicine  ■ Harmful – disease (decompose us), decompose food, release harmful  chemicals  ● Reason why we wash hands, use deodorant, cook  ● Protists  ○ Algae – single‐celled plants  ■ Base of water ecosystems; food web  ■ O2 – 1∕2 of oxygen on planet  ■ Oil  ■ Environmental impacts: “Red Tide” & eutrophication  ■ Algae is being used for fuel production; some algae contains 1000x as  much oil as corn  ○ Protozoans – single‐celled animals (our ancestors, 1 billion years ago)  ■ Some disease‐causing (parasitic behavior modification); Malaria (kills ~3  million people/year, infects 1∕2 billion – most dangerous infectious  disease)  ○ Slime molds – single‐celled fungi  ■ Problem­solving  ● Equals energy efficiency/ optimization (all life)  ■ Memorize patterns  ■ Anticipate events  ■ Recent research indicates “intelligence” in single cell  ● Fungi  ○ Decomposers – recycle nutrients; compete with bacteria (antibiotics)  ○ Body of fungus = ​HYPHAE​ (“threads” of cells growing through food source)  ■ Cells excrete digestive juices, then absorb nutrients (every cell must touch  food; no circulatory system)  ■ Cell wall = chitin  ○ Mushrooms = reproduction  ○ **Fungi cells release digestive enzymes externally, digest food outside body, then  absorb it (requires filaments)  ● Animals  ○ “Plankton”  ○ Mini­crustaceans  ○ Mini­insects/ spiders      Populations and Carrying Capacity 8.31 ­ 9.2    Learning Outcomes:  ● Explain why the same species can have populations with different survivorship curves;  relate to environmental conditions  ● Compare & contrast r‐selected & K‐selected species; describe beneficial environments  for each   ● Define and calculate carrying capacity & inflection point; explain how these can move   ● Identify limiting factors (density‐dependent and density‐independent)  ● Relate all concepts to human populations    ● Life History:​ collection of traits unique to each species (how energy is earned and spent)  ○ Examples:   ■ Active time  ■ Food/ Energy resources  ■ Habitat  ■ Reproduction  ■ Development  ■ Defenses  ● Most important aspect in determining “species” → Reproduction  ○ Reproduction  ■ Similar life history (need to interact)  ■ Physically capable  ■ “Attractive”/ courtship behaviors  ■ Genetic compatibility    Energy in Reproduction  R (cockroach/walmart)= growth rate, K (elephant/ Rolex)= carrying capacity      r­selected  K­selected  Age at Reproduction  Youg  Old  Number of Offspring  100­1000  Few  Care of Young  No  Yes  Life span  Shorter  Long    ● Spending same amounts of energy in reproduction, K­selected spends more time insuring  that few offspring will survive  ● r = reproductive growth      Populations and Carrying Capacity 8.31 ­ 9.2    ○ r = (births [b] ­ deaths [d] / pop’n size [n]  ■ Ex:  ● 2 snails = ~100 eggs  ● r = 100 ­ 0 / 2  ● r = 50   ● r ­ selected species are better at adapting to changing environments  ○ Lots of offspring = lots of diversity = lots of stability  ○ r­selected species: fast reproduction  ● r/K‐selected traits (“quantity v. quality”)  Population Growth  1) All populations reproduce and (try to) grow  a) Exponential growth → seen in r­selected species  2) All populations negatively affect their environment (decrease resources and increase  wastes), resulting in…   3) Environment limits all populations (decrease births and increase deaths)  a) K = carrying capacity  b) K/2 = inflection point  ● Population characteristics  ○ Growth = exponential (over‐reproduction)  ○ With ↑ numbers (pop’n size) = worse environment (↓ resources & ↑ waste)  ○ Worse environment = ↓ pop’n size (↓ births & ↑ deaths) = limits population size  ● ****Carrying Capacity (K):​ maximum number of individuals a particular environment  can support indefinitely  ○ Indefinitely = take only what can be replaced; live off “overgrowth” (interest)  ○ Use of resources = Replenishment of resources  ○ Limiting factors  ■ Starting growth of a population = exponential; limiting factors level off  population growth  ● Density­Dependent factors:​ occur more often in high­ density areas  ○ Ex: predation (attracted to higher density), disease  transmission (faster in high density), starvation (use up  food faster)  ● Density­Independent factors:​ equally likely to occur in high­ and  low­ density areas  ○ Ex: weather patterns, weather  ○ Overexploitation:​ using resources faster than they can replenish themselves  ○ Human Population Growth (or Raise K?)  ■ Tool­making; fire; agriculture  ■ Industrial Revolution      Populations and Carrying Capacity 8.31 ­ 9.2    ■ Green Revolution?  ○ Inflection point – point of fastest growth (↑births & ↓ deaths)  ○ K can move (as resources ↓ or waste ↑, K drops)  ■ When resources ↓ & waste ↑, pop’n experiences ↑ compe on, preda on,  parasitism/disease, death  ■ Natural disasters (sudden ↓ of resources) = K suddenly drops  ● Human Overpopulation  ○ 7+ billion humans – over carrying capacity  ○ What can you do?  ■ Fewer children  ■ Use fewer resources, create less waste  ■ Spread the word (awareness of overpopulation issues)      Species Interactions 9.2, 9.7  Types of Species Interactions Energy Gains/ Losses  ● Competition (­,­)  ● Predation (+,­­­)  ● Parasitism (+,­)  ● Symbiosis, Mutualism (+,+)  ● Commensalism (+,0)    1. Competition ​(­,­)  a. Intraspecific:​ same species  b. Interspecific:​ 2 different species  c. Competitive Exclusion Principle:​ IF two species need the same resources, only  one species will survive  d. Competition is negative for both participants  e. How to Avoid Competition: Resource Partitioning  i. Creates NICHES  1. Which resources a population uses (where and when), how it  spends its energy; how it survives  2. In the long run, only ​one​ species can survive in each niche  ii. Examples:   1. Feed at different times  2. Feed in different locations  3. Feed on different foods  2. Predation​ (+,­­­)  a. Food Webs → not a food chain (not that simple)   i. Producers (make own food)  ii. Primary Consumers (eat producers)  iii. Secondary Consumers (eat primary consumers)  iv. Decomposers (eat everything)  ­ Arrows follow energy transfer  b. Predation and Energy Transfer  i. Lose 90% of energy at each level  ii. Predator will receive 10% of energy gathered by ​growth  c. Avoiding Predation  i. Of negative interactions, Predation is ​most​ severe (­ ­ ­)  ii. Prey have evolved ways of reducing predation  1. Examples:   a. Camouflage  b. Advertisement of danger  c. Divert attention      Species Interactions 9.2, 9.7  d. Play dead  e. Mobbing, groups  i. Ex: Herds, swarm of bees  f. Mimicry  d. Co­evolution:​ predator­prey (including herbivore­plant)  i. Like an “arms race” (each side gets stronger and stronger, developing  more advanced ‘weaponry’)  ii. Ex: Cheetahs and gazelles (each continues to get faster)  3. Parasitism(+/‐)  a. Internal: ​ Malaria, tapeworms, Giardia, elephantiasis  b. External: ​ Ticks/fleas, leeches, mosquitos  c. Behavioral:​ Cowbird  d. Not successful if it kills its host; if host dies, parasite dies too  e. Reduce energy loss in host (compared to predation)  4. Mutualism or symbiosis ( + / + )  a. Benefits ​both​ species/organisms  b. Co‐evolution (ex: flowering plants and pollinators/seed dispersers)  c. Most evolutionarily beneficial  d. Ex: Fungi and plant roots; ants and acacia; lichens  5. Commensalism ( + / 0 )  a. One species benefits, other not harmed  i. Ex: bird nest (bird is away from predators, tree not affected); epiphytes  (hang from trees); shark/remora (remora live on shark, shark not affected)  6. Altruism??  a. Spending energy without risk to life   b. Cooperative behaviors (work together)  c. Reciprocal altruism in order to increase survival of another (give help now, expect  help later)  i. Ex: vampire bats, baboons; holding door open to save someone else from  spending energy, no benefit for holding door­ creates society of reliance  d. Inclusive fitness (closer relative, more help)   i. Ex: cheetahs; scrub rays; cat   


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