BIO 105 Week 4 Notes
BIO 105 Week 4 Notes BIO 105
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Loehrer on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 105 at North Carolina State University taught by Jennifer Landin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Biology in the Modern World in Earth Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Communities and Ecosystems 9/7, 9/9 Learning Outcomes: ● Compare and contrast dominant species and keystone species ● Explain where each nutrient (water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) is found in the environment and how each is modified for use in life forms (and what it is used for); Explain how each nutrient recycles back into the environment ● Relate the carbon cycle to photosynthesis and climate change ● Community: all populations in a given area ● Community Structure ○ Dominant Species ■ Most abundant in a community (biomass) = plants ■ Used to name community ● Ex: OakPine forest, Sea OatDune plant ○ Keystone Species ■ Large effect on environment, disproportionate to biomass (often predators) ■ If species is removed, balance of community is upset ○ Species Diversity ■ More stability ● Ecosystems ○ Community (1. sunlight) + nonliving elements (2. water) (3. Nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon) ○ Each ecosystem is unique in these combinations ^ ■ Sunlight: ● Impacts seasons, evaporations, and wind/water circulation ● Required for photosynthesis ● Energy on planet from sun = fossil fuels, wind, dams, etc. ■ Water ● Affected by sunlight (evaporation), circulation, gravity, geology ● Required for photosynthesis and life on land ● Sources: groundwater, surface water, glaciers ● Sewage → send water downstream ■ Nutrients ● Nitrogen (N) ○ Nitrogen needed to build proteins (amino acids each has a N in i ○ Earth’s atmosphere: 80% Nitrogen (unusable by life forms) Communities and Ecosystems 9/7, 9/9 ○ Introduced into plants (legumes) by nitrogen fixation (via symbiotic bacteria) ○ N in plants → transmitted through food web ■ Decomposition releases N back into atmosphere ● Phosphorus (P) ○ Used in: ■ ATP (cell energy) ■ DNA ■ Cell membranes ○ P transferred through food web ○ Returned to rock/soil when life forms die ○ Humans use P in fertilizers & detergents ■ Runoff produces algal blooms, red tides, dead zones ■ Eutrophication N used by algae ○ Used by plants/algae (ATP, DNA, cell membranes); transferred to animals ○ Redeposited in rocks/soil through decay ● Carbon (C) ○ In rocks (unusable) and atmosphere CO2 ○ Photosynthesis = organic molecules; held in mass of organisms ○ Sugars used to power organisms OR ○ Sugars used to build mass of life forms ○ Burning, decomposition releases CO2 back to atmosphere ○ Fossil fuels = buried organisms (lots of carbon molecules) ■ Fossils store CO2 (burning releases CO2) ○ Climate Change (C02) ■ Rising CO2 levels & planet temperatures ■ Climate change cause = CO2, NOT OZONE! ○ 2nd most abundant greenhouse gas ○ Industrial revolution & cars (fossil fuels) → came from China ○ US emissions (energy, gasoline, deforestation) ○ Comparison to long‐term CO2 levels ● Climate Change: Consequences ○ Weather intensity (droughts, flooding, snow, heat waves, etc.) ○ Early ice thaws; less polar ice ○ Spread of disease (emerging diseases) Communities and Ecosystems 9/7, 9/9 ■ Mosquito migration and evolution ○ Extinction rates ○ Sea level rise (human movement) ■ War, political unrest
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