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US History 202-013

by: Julia Adgate

US History 202-013 History 202-013

Julia Adgate


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Chapter 17, Freedom's Boundaries/Reconstruction
US History
Bruce McCord
Class Notes
us, history
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Adgate on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202-013 at Aiken Technical College taught by Bruce McCord in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see US History in History at Aiken Technical College.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Eric Foner’s “Give Me Liberty” C.17 Freedom’s Boundaries *Problems for farmers in the late 1800s (populism): There are poor returns on agricultural produce (too much rain, not enough rain, produce isn’t selling for enough cash, etc). There is a combined problem of debt and deflation in the late 1800s for farming families. In the south, sharecropping is already a big thing because crops are not as profitable as they used to be. The Crime of 1873: the removal of silver as currency, which means there is less money in circulation, which means the value of money goes up. This is an issue because farmers were in debt, so  (in 1870: the sale of my tomato crops equals $100, I owe the bank $30 for a loan, so I make $70 and am 70% productive. In 1880 - after silver is taken away – now I make $60 for the same amount of tomatoes, I still owe the bank $30, so I only make $30, I am 50% productive). Railroad and agricultural monopolies: for shipping, there is no competition (no other ways to ship other than railroads), and this leads to higher rates for shipping and price gouging (the Interstate Commerce Commission has no power to regulate this). Agricultural monopolies (collusion) leads to lowballing the farmers. The farmers are being paid less for their crops, but charged more to do anything with it. (Farmers) Opposed the national tarif: (tariff = a tax on imports) Not only does the tariff generate revenue for the government, it protects US industry by artificially raising the prices of imported goods. They thought that the tariff didn’t do any good for them other than to raise their cost of living, and foreign countries are retaliating by by raising tariffs on agricultural imports, which hurts the farmer in that sense too, so they opposed it. Response from the Farmers (how they want to solve these problems): 1.) Government built silos and storage facilities to smooth out variations in the market. 2.) Free silver- they want to see the reintroduction of silver to the economy, which will cause inflation, which will make their crops more profitable (at this point, the miners out west start to jump onboard with this idea…). 3.) The use of the Sherman Anti-Trust act, to break up monopolies so that they aren’t getting so pinned with high shipping costs by railroads. 4.) They want to see an elimination of the tariff, and to see the wealthy pay a graduated income tax (so that the poor pay less, and the wealthy pay more). 5.) As a general issue, they want to see a more responsive government, because they don’t feel that the government listens to and responds to the people well enough. They want the government to abandon their laissez-faire style of governing (hands off governing, let it sort itself out, that’s the best way). *Populist party (1890, Kansas): (1896) The Democrats ran William Jennings Bryan as their candidate on a Populist platform (basically, the Democrats decide to try the “if you can’t beat them, join them” idea). Bryan is very religious, all his speeches are very evangelical, says that the farmers are being ‘crucified’ and is basically feeding right into all of their complaints, so naturally the farmers are thrilled to hear their problems heard and brought to light. His ideas are popular with farmers in the southeast, but very unpopular with the more industrial, northeastern populous. Campaign funding: McKinley = $3.5 million. Bryan = around $300,000. This is because of WHO is funding the campaigns (rich industrialists v. poor farmers). Because of this, Bryan can’t break into the Industrialist Northeast, and he loses the election. 1900 (Reelection McKinley v. Bryan): McKinley wins again, but he is assassinated in 1901, bringing in Theodore Roosevelt (a progressive Republican) as president. 1880/1890s: we see a move to crush African American (Republican) vote in the South. th 15 Amendment: stated that vote could not be denied based on “race, color, or previous conditions of servitude.” Opposed by: Poll taxes, literacy tests, private voting booths, intimidation, land/property requirements, certain crimes (like vagrancy under the Black Codes) could all keep you from voting, but it isn’t because you’re black. Grandfather Clause: if your father or grandfather COULD vote prior to 1867 (when there were voting restrictions), then you could bypass these restrictions. (for the WHITES who they WANTED to vote but could not pass one of these tests meant for the blacks, there was this clause in place.) Jim Crow Laws (Segregation): Homer Plessy challenged segregation laws in New Orleans. He was considered ‘octaroon’ which means that he is mixed, but he was 1/8 African American. He sat in the all-white area of a train car, and was asked to move, but he refused, and his case was taken all the way up to the supreme court. th Plessy v Ferguson: Plessy argues that under the 14 amendment, these segregation laws should not exist. The supreme court comes back and argues “Separate, But Equal”, saying that the 14 amendment guarantees equality, but does not guarantee integration. Since the facilities on both sides are equal, this is perfectly okay. (in most cases, the facilities were far from ‘equal’) American Imperialism: Spanish-American War (1898): The US emerges as a global power. “New” Imperialism (late 1800s-1900): focused on areas that the western powers hadn’t really looked to in the past. Expansion into southeast Asia and (especially for Europe) into Africa. New innovations come about during this time (Maxim Machine Gun, steam-powered and metal-hulled gunships, Quinine to cure malaria, the telegraph). We see two different racial views present during this time. We take on a different attitude towards the rest of the world; more so that we are in competition with everyone else. “Scramble for Africa” it took 20 years for Europe to conquer all of Africa (except for Ethiopia). New imperialism is promoted by industrialism. This “New Imperialism” was mainly focused on resources, markets, manpower, and strategic locations, NOT land, migration, and colonization… as it usually was. For the natives, there’s more emphasis on cooperation and assimilation than elimination (usually we would kick out the natives during the OLD Imperialism, this time we’re letting them stay, because we need them for labor and manpower). Social Darwinism: We see two different attitudes towards race during this time - (survival of the fittest; think conflict and competition is GOOD for the human race because it weed out the weak) “White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling): a missionary impulse. Still a racial and racist idea, but took on the idea that we need to go out to these countries that aren’t industrialized and free and religious, and help to show them ‘our way,’ because our way is better and we want to make them more like us. Let’s bring Western government, religion, law, culture, etc. to the rest of the world. Nationalism/”Jingoism”: competitive nationalism that takes off. There’s this idea that we are in competition with the rest of the world. Yellow Press comes about. Spanish-American War (Cuban Revolution): We want to help Cuba because 1.) our Manifest Destiny was completed in 1890, and we were an expansionist power. There was strong southern support to taking over Cuba before the Civil War, because we want more land. 2.) There is also the factor of industrial competition (the US had more money invested in Cuba than Spain did). 3.) We have a humanitarian aspect to this – there is an angry reaction to Gen. V. Weyler’s Reconcentration Camps in Cuba (the terrible conditions cause deaths). 4.) we are sympathetic because of our US vs. England ordeal. 5.) Yellow press is enraging the society and encouraging the government to act. 6.) February 14, 1898: the US warship the USS Maine was sunk in Havana Harbor and the US believed it was a Spanish mine (killed 266). The US government demands that Spain withdraw/vacate Cuba. Spain refuses, and declares war on the US, but we decide to declare war first because we are pissed. The war only lasts for 115 days. Treaty of Paris (1898): we agree to pay 20 million dollars, and we gain Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, and Cuban independence. Teller Resolution: before the war; says that the Spanish-American War was to ensure Cuban independence. <<<BUT>>> Platt Amendment: after the war; the US forced the Platt Amendment on the new Cuban government, stating that the US could send troops into Cuba in times of unrest. We also take over Hawaii. Philippines War (1899-1903): 4,000 US killed; 16,000 Filipinos killed. Panama Canal Zone (1903): Alfred T. Mahan wrote about the influence of sea power upon history (to be a world power, you must be a naval power). He said the US needed to increase its fleet, secure bases in the Caribbean, and secure the Panama Canal Zone. President Roosevelt was a major fan of these ideas (with his navy background). 1903 Roosevelt offered Colombia $10 million up front and $250,000 a year for the Panama Canal Zone. Colombia refused. Roosevelt goes to Panamanians and says that if they wanted to revolt against Colombia, he would back them up. This leads to a revolution in Panama, and Panama takes the deal instead when they are independent. (“Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine”; 1823, Monroe said the western hemispheres were in the US sphere of influence and that European interference would be seen as hostile; he thinks the US should police the western hemisphere.)


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