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Chem 111 - Week 04 Notes

by: AveryLemler

Chem 111 - Week 04 Notes Chem 111

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About this Document

These notes go over what was covered in week 04 of Chem 111: the Bohr Model, electron configurations, and atomic/molecular orbitals. They are a combination of book notes and lecture notes, with imp...
General Chemistry I
Dr. Ruth Tucker
Class Notes
Chem, Chemistry, general, Colorado, state, University
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by AveryLemler on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Ruth Tucker in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Chem 111 ­ CSU Week 04 Notes StudySoup ­ Avery  Chapter 3: Atomic Structure (cont.)  Highlight​: Topics talked about extensively in lecture  ​Highlight​: Helpful examples    3.4: The Hydrogen Spectrum and the Bohr Model (cont.)  ● Energy Level Diagram: ​shows the transition of electrons between energy levels  ● Atomic Emission (on an energy level diagram): ​arrows point down when an  electron emits energy; higher to lower energy level  ○ Represented by a negative change in energy  ○ When an electron emits energy, visible light energy is also released  ■ Color is based on wavelength and frequency of the electron  emissions  ● Atomic Absorption (on an energy level diagram): ​arrows point up when an  electron absorbs energy from a photon; lower to higher energy level  ○ Represented by a positive change in energy  ● ΔE = n​­n​ / n​ 2  f​i​ ○ E = energy  ○ n​ f ​inal state of the electron  ○ n​ i​initial state of the electron  ● Bohr Model: ​a model of an atom that depicts electrons traveling in circular orbits  around the nucleus  ○ Strengths:  ■ Accurate prediction of energy needed to ionize an atom  ● Ionization: ​to remove an electron from an atom  ■ Allowed scientists to begin using quantum theory to explain matter  at an atomic level  ○ Limitations:   ■ Movement of electrons is not as defined as the Bohr Model depicts  ■ Does not account for electron spectra of multielectron atoms  Chem 111 ­ CSU Week 04 Notes StudySoup ­ Avery  ● Electrons move more like waves rather than like a ball (as depicted in many  diagrams)  ○   3.8: The Periodic Table and Filling Orbitals  ● Aufbau Principle: ​building electron configurations of atoms by adding one  electron at a time as atomic number increases across rows of the periodic table  ● Effective Nuclear Charge (Z​ ): ​theeff​raction toward the nucleus experienced  by an electron in an atom   ● Electron Configuration: ​the distribution of electrons of an atom among the  orbitals of an atom or ion  2​ 1  ○ Ex: Li = 1s​ 2s​ ● Orbital Diagrams: ​depiction of arrangement of electrons in an atom or ion using  boxes to represent orbitals  ­​ ○ Up/down arrows to indicate e​ with positive or negative spin  ○ See Carbon example below  ● Hund’s Rule: ​every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron  before any one orbital is doubly occupied    ○ Ex: Carbon  ● Condensed Electron Configuration: ​matches the electron configuration of a  noble gas plus extra electrons   2​ 2  ○ Ex: Carbon = [He]2s​ 2p​ ● Orbital Energies in Multielectron Atoms:  Chem 111 ­ CSU Week 04 Notes StudySoup ­ Avery  ○ Orbital energies for subshells do not follow diagram for H atom  ■ Within a given shell, subshells fill in order of ​s, p, d, f  ​ ■ Some overlap of subshells happens at higher n ​  values  ● Ex: 4s < 3d (4s fills up before 3d fills up)     


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