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RES 351 notes Week 5 Day 8

by: Cassidy_SWK2018

RES 351 notes Week 5 Day 8 RES 351



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Discussion of why there are only four gospels and a look at alternate gospels
Jesus and the Gospels
Dr. Shannon Grimes
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy_SWK2018 on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RES 351 at Meredith College taught by Dr. Shannon Grimes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Jesus and the Gospels in Religious and Ethical Studies at Meredith College.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
RES 351 9-20-16 Why only four Gospels? 1. Codex - ancient books 2. Gospel of Thomas found in Nag Hammadi texts (gnostic) 3. Apostolic succession – the teachings of Jesus will be considered valid if they come from a line of Jesus that traces back to the apostles who knew Jesus, or were from that very earl period, like Paul a. Any ideas outside of this will be called heresy b. Helps to control prophecies so they don’t contradict c. So, people started writing in the apostles’ names to get their views out 4. Gnosticism – inner knowledge 5. Why were these four chosen? a. Many other gospels lack the narrative and/or theological explanation found in the canonical gospels i. Ex. Thomas has a list of Jesus’ sayings, but doesn’t talk about death and resurrection, which are central ideas b. Contain “heretical” ideas c. Dissimilar to oldest gospels (Matt, Mark, Luke, John) nd 6. Marcion declared a heretic in 144, so working in 2 century a. Considered himself a follower of Paul, even though they never met b. Gentile writing when Christianity was really starting to separate from Judaism i. Gentile Christians didn’t agree with the Jewish Christians, the tide was turning against Judaism c. Marcion wanted to purge Christianity of all of its Jewish roots d. Chose Luke as the only gospel needed i. Edited it to cut out Jewish references 7. Tatian a. Also liked one gospel, so he wove the four canonicals and possibly one apocryphal gospel together to create one seamless story i. Called Diatesseron 1. We only have excerpts and quotes from it 8. Irenaeus – year 180 st a. 1 proposal of 4 gospels i. 4 is a symbolic number 9. Athanasius – 367 st a. 1 New Testament canon list b. Idea first accepted by a church (Augustine’s) in 393 10. Gospel of Thomas a. Some scholars think Thomas is older than the canonical gospels b. The version we have is second century text, possibly based on an earlier version that was added to c. This is what Q was probably like 11. Jewish Christians – salvation through works a. Gentiles – salvation through faith b. Gnostics - salvation through mystical insight 12. Thomas v. 114 a. Gnostics support women’s involvement b. Four components of ancient Greek thought i. Fire and air 1. Male 2. Pneuma/spiritus/ruach a. Different words for air/breath/spirit ii. Water and earth 1. Female 2. Elements of the body iii. Making Mary a “female male” is rather spiritualizing her


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