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Half of Chapter 45 book-based notes

by: KPR17

Half of Chapter 45 book-based notes Psych 101

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These cover the first part of unit 5 as discussed in class and would be a good review of the lecture and overview for the exam.
Intro to Psychology
Karena Moran
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by KPR17 on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at West Virginia University taught by Karena Moran in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Katherine Psych 101 Book Notes (first half of chapter 45 – Conditioning and Learning) – Unit 5 9/21/2016 Conditioning and Learning Classical Conditioning:  First studied by Ivan Pavlov o Russian psychologist  One of 2 fundamental forms of learning (other is operational learning to be covered later)  AKA Pavlonian Conditioning Dog Experiment: 1. Rang a bell and gave dogs some food  dogs salivated 2. Repeated this process multiple times 3. Dogs began to treat bell as signal for food and salivated whenever they heard the bell - Dogs were conditioned to salivate when hearing the bell even when no food was presented Process can also be applied when: 1. Humans associating a drug with the environment they’ve taken it in 2. Humans associate a stimulus with and emotional event 3. Humans associate particular flavor of food with food poisoning Classical conditioning theory is still used for 2 reasons:  “straightforward test of associative learning that can be used to study other, more complex behaviors  Classical conditioning is always occurring in our lives o The effects of it on behavior have important implications for understanding normal and disordered behaviors in humans Generally Classical Conditioning (CC) occurs:  Neutral stimuli are associated with psychologically significant events to the individual Food poisoning example:  Neutral fish taste would now be associated with event of getting sick if fish once gave a person food poisoning Definitions Unconditioned Stimulus (US): called such because it elicits a neutral response Ex. Dogs naturally salivate with sight of food  salivating is the Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Response (UR): natural, instinct reaction to a stimulus Ex. Salivating of the dogs when they are in the presence of food Other examples of US and UR: - Loud noises (US) startle us (UR) - Hot shower (US) makes us feel good (UR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS): a signal that has no importance to the organism until it is paired with something significant ex. The bell is conditioned stimulus in Pavlov’s Dogs experiment *prior to being presented with food, the sound had no significance to the dogs. After it was paired with food multiple times, dogs salivated from just the sound of the bell Conditioned Response (CR): can become confused with the unconditioned response (UR) such as drooling, but is conditioned because the response comes with the pairing of the CS  Response as a result of the conditioned stimulus  CR is dependent on the CS **another example** Fast food example: Seeing fast food sign or logo makes you salivate, even though seeing actual food usually elicits that response, the sign triggered the same reaction US: actual food UR: salivating CS: food sign/logo CR: salivating Alarm clock example:  Waking up in the morning naturally makes one grumpy  most people usually have an alarm clock to wake them up  someone adds a neutral tone as your alarm  eventually the tone will elicit feelings of grumpiness whenever they hear it because waking up early makes one grumpy so hearing the tone will pair with the emotional response of irritation US: waking up early UR: feeling grumpy CS: alarm tone CR: hearing the tone at any time during the day will make you feel grumpy (this is why your favorite song shouldn’t be your alarm ;)) Operant Conditioning:  First studied by Edward Thorndike (later extended by B.F. Skinner)  AKA instrumental learning Occurs when:  A behavior (vs a stimulus) is associated with the occurrence of a significant event o Ex. Lab rat in a cage (Skinner Box) presses a lever to get food.  Rat has no natural association of lever-pressing and getting food, so he learns to make that connection How it happens:  Initially, rat just explores cage – climbing, burrowing – to find food  He accidentally presses lever  Food pellet drops  The voluntary action is the operant behavior because it “operates” on the environment o An action the animal, itself, makes Reinforcers: things that strengthen a particular behavior in an environment Ex. Food pellets reinforcing lever-pressing (Food is the reward)  Receiving pellet increases likelihood that the behavior will occur again Thorndike’s Law of Effect: when behaviors have positive (satisfying) effects, it is likely to be repeated in the future, also, when behavior has negative effects, it is less likely to be repeated in the future **reinforcers that increase behavior are rewards and reinforcers that decrease behaviors are punishments Ex. Wanting to get good grades in class leads to participating and receiving credit for it  Credit is reward  Speaking about irrelevant topics would lead to deduction of points, which is the punishment **freely chosen behavior is reinforced Operant conditioning distinct how?  It’s a method for studying voluntary behavior  Rat’s decision of pressing the lever is voluntary – it is free to perform the behavior whenever it wants o Classical conditioning is opposite in that it is dependent on involuntary behavior  Dog did not choose to drool due to the stimulus, they just do  Rat is active participant in the study, dogs were passive participant Lesson of operant conditioning: voluntary behavior is strongly influenced by its consequences  Classical responses are elicited  Operant responses are emitted o Further conveys idea that operant behaviors are essentially voluntary in nature Useful Things to Know About Classical Conditioning 1. It has many effects on behavior 2. CS does not elicit merely a single response, as in the case of salivating 3. Many things happen, Pavlov just happened to only measure salivation 4. A whole system of responses are elicited with stimuli  Such as: o Dogs physiologically prepping for digestion o Dogs becoming alert o Dogs approaching the feeder and wagging their tails, etc… Classical conditioning also associated with eating:  Flavors associated with certain nutrients, such as sugar or fats, can become preferred without realizing anything about the pairing o Ex. US is protein - You crave more once you start to consume it o Because protein is highly concentrated in meat, flavor of meat becomes a CS, or cue, that proteins are to come o Becomes a cycle of craving more meat, making the craving a CR Flavor cravings can also work for disliked flavors: In examples of stomach aches or illnesses, such as drinking too much tequila, you can acquire an extreme dislike of the taste and smell of it - this phenomenon is called taste aversion conditioning **another example** Cancer patients can develop aversions to food eaten just before starting chemotherapy as medicine makes the patient sick, so they associate the sickness with the food Fear conditioning: associating cues with panic or other emotional trauma  Rather than a physical CR, the CS triggers an emotion  Plays a role in creating many anxiety disorders in humans like phobias and panic disorders Drug ingestion and classical conditioning: - Where a drug is ingested can be associated with certain cues (rooms, odors, drug paraphernalia) - Experiencing one of these cues later, such as smelling something, may trigger a response like taking the drug itself would - Your body can compensate before taking a drug o Ex. Before taking morphine, your body can become more sensitive to pain  Cues tell your body what is to come (i.e. being in a hospital room before drug is administered tells your body it is about to receive something)  Body says “the drug can take care of it” - Drug overdoses o Overdoses can happen not because of taking more of a drug, but taking it in a new place where there are no cues which would have made your body tolerate it otherwise CC can motivate ongoing operant behavior: - Rat learns to press a lever via operant behavior - Classical conditioning will make him work harder to get his reward due to cues it got before receiving food such as squeaking of the lever - Negative cues will make people and other organisms work harder to avoid situations that could lead to trauma


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