Week 5 Notes for ANEQ 346
Week 5 Notes for ANEQ 346 ANEQ 346
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alia Coughlan on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 346 at Colorado State University taught by Dr Hess in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Equine Disease in Equine Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Week 5 Notes for ANEQ 346 9/19 Lecture 10 Parasites Types of Parasites Strongyles: Most common and important parasite in horses Large Strongyle = do the most damage by immature stage migration Strongylus vulgaris Migrates through mesenteric arteries Damages endothelial lining which stimulates thrombus prod. Ingested as larvae Pathogenic = capable of producing disease Strongylus edentates Migrates through the liver, peritoneum, large intestine Strongylus equinus Migrates through small intestine, cecum, peritoneal cavity, liver, back to small intestine Small Strongyle (Cyathostomes) = Migrates into intestinal lining Small red worms Most important parasites in adult horses today Larvae are eaten by horse Enter the walls of the hindgut (mucosa) Adult worms live in the large intestine Eggs pass out in feces *Large strongyles are more of an older problem Ascarids = Large roundworm (parascaris equorum) Pinworms Bots Stomach Worms Hambronemiasis = Larvae migrates through skin and leaves bloody lesions Tapeworms Overview of Strongyles Clinical signs: Diarrhea Colic Poor Condition (Unthriftiness) Diagnosis: Microscopic examination of feces *Must do a fecal culture to determine if strongyles are large or small Treatment: Must be done 2x a year Medication Febendazole (5 days) Oxfendazole (2 days) Resistance!!!! Sometimes they can resist medications Overview of Ascarids Happens in small intestine of suckling foal Only up to age 2 *Can happen either from ingesting it through grass or from eating mares feces Clinical signs: Coughing Larvae migrate into the lungs Reduced gut motility Rupture Poor condition (rough hair coat, pot belly, etc) Diagnosis: Eggs found in feces after 3 months of infection Treatment: Medication Febendazole, Ivermectin How to control: Give foals antihelmintics at week 8 of age Don’t let parasite develop resistance Overview of Pinworms Two types: Oxyuris Egg larvae develop, then are ingested and migrate to small intestine Migrate to large intestine after 10 days Female then lays eggs (live up to 100 days) Probstmayria vivipara Colon of equids Clinical signs: Itchy butt Erosions on colon mucosa Diagnosis: Cannot be found in routine fecal exam Adhesive tape Treatments: Routine antiparasitic compounds Sanitation of stables Washing of perineal area *Not pathogenic Overview of Bots Gasterofilus intestinalis Gasterofilus nasalis One generation born each year MayOctober Clinical signs: Horses annoyed by female flies Yellow eggs found on legs Periodontal (teeth) ulcerations Stomach lesions *Can’t be found in feces Treatments: Medications Overview of Tapeworms Live around the ileocecal junction Flat and whitish Very common Mites ingest tapeworm eggs, horse ingests mites, mites attach to ileocecal junction, reproduce more eggs which come out in feces Associated with colic Develop into adults between 68 weeks Only certain medications work Praziquantal Pyrantal Controlling the Parasites Clean stables with dry bedding and protected water Avoid overstocking Treatments 12x year of antihelmintics After 2 weeks, 90% of eggs should be gone Resistance can spike if overused or improperly used Reduce chance of resistance Found in more horse concentrated areas Watch for fecal eggs Checks to see if drugs are effective *Most important aspect is keeping the parasites in control, not just treating the horse 9/21 Lecture 11 Diarrhea What is Diarrhea? Fecal matter with increased water content Either increased frequency or amount Sometime both Can be Peracute, Acute or Chronic Happens in the cecum, large colon, and large intestine Large intestine normalcy Secretion: 90 L Absorption: 95% *If it is acute diarrhea, it only secretes and does not absorb Questions to Ask Are other animals sick? Has there been a change in routine? Colic? Significant weight loss? Clinical Signs Weight loss Colic Depression Sweating Muscle weakness = happens due to loss of electrolytes Laminitis Ventral edema = happens due to lack of protein *If lots of sodium bicarbonate is lost, the pH level will become acidic *Colitis = massive fluid and electrolyte losses Leads to endotoxemia, sepsis, shock and death *Inflammation plays a central role in the mechanism of acute diarrhea Caused by microorganisms/toxins Diagnosis History Physical Exam Fecal Exam Blood Work Rectal Biopsy = for chronic diarrhea Treatment Fluids Nutrition NSAIDS Low dose Banamine for antiendotoxin effects Reasons for Getting Diarrhea Grain overload Undigested soluble CHO in hindgut Changes pH Death of gramnegative bacteria Endotoxin in cell wall Disruption in mucosa Exotoxins from bacteria Salmonella (S. typhimurium) Environment contamination Passive and active carriers Stress related Inflammation of bowel wall Disrupts normal absorption and secretion Loss of protein Endotoxin/exotoxins Peracute/acute colitis = can die within 12 hours unapparent infection Signs: Fever Anorexia Oral mucosa Muscle weakness Dehydration Diarrhea Potomac Horse Fever Neoricketsia risticii Looks like salmonella Found in the river valleys during the summer season Not contagious Mortality rate: 2025% NSAID Toxicity Manifested by renal and GI disease Sepsis, endotoxemia Causes mucosal ulceration, bleeding and protein loss 9/23 Exam 1
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