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BSC 216 Lymphatic System Part 1

by: Vanessa Notetaker

BSC 216 Lymphatic System Part 1 BSC 216

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 216 > BSC 216 Lymphatic System Part 1
Vanessa Notetaker
GPA 3.71

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Lecture Notes From Tuesday, September 20 on the Lymphatic System and Parts of the Immunity System . Supplementary information said in lecture that is NOT in slides is included
Anatomy & Physiology II
Austin Hicks
Class Notes
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM, immune system, anatomy immune system, Anatomy & Physiology II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Austin Hicks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
BSC 216 Lymphatic System Main functions  Fluid recovery o Exchange of fluid between the arteriole end and the venule end of a capillary is not equal  Only 85% if the fluid exchanged is not lost  Immunity o WBCs do not linger in the blood and are mostly in the tissue o WBCs survey the tissues for pathogens to engulf and activate immune response  Lipid Absorption o Lacteals in small intestine absorb dietary lipids Components of the System  Lymph fluid o Similar to blood plasma minus the proteins because proteins are too large to leave bloodstream  Lymphatic vessels o Transport lymph back to the cardiovascular system o Collect interstitial fluid  Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic Capillaries  Endothelial cells overlap to create minivalves  Increases in interstitial fluid volume cause minivalves to open (higher pressure)  Decreases in interstitial fluid volume close minivalves to prevent backflow (low pressure)  These blunt ended capillaries have a stopping point unlike blood vessel capillaries Direction of Flow Lymphatic capillariesLymphatic collecting vesselsLymph nodesLymphatic trunksLymphatic ducts Essential connection Cisterna chyli o Gateway to the thoracic duct o Merger of two lumbar trunks o Last major duct before returning flood to the cardiovascular system o Chyle  Fatty lymph absorbed from digestive organs Lymph Transport  Skeletal muscle “milking”  Respiratory pumps  Minivalves and valves  Proximity to arteries functions like the skeletal pump or respiratory pump would  Smooth muscle in lymphatic trunk and thoracic duct  Activity levels speed transport Lymphatic Cells  Lymphocytes o Natural Killer cells destroy bacteria and infected cells o T cells initiate cell mediated attack o B cells produce antigens and mark cells to be destructed  Macrophages o Mature monocytes that engulf pathogens o “Pacman cells” o Break down antigens for lymphocytes  Dendritic Cells o Activate the immune system by breaking down antigens but, stay anchored unlike macrophages  Reticular cells o Produce the fibrous network that supports other lymphoid cells (STROMA) Lymphatic Tissue  Functions o Site for lymphocyte proliferation o Fibrous network that allows surveillance points for lymphocytes  Types of Lymphatic Tissue o Diffuse lymphatic tissue  Scattered reticular tissue present in all organs o Mucosa associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)  Diffuse lymphatic tissue in walls of bronchi and mucosa of genital and urinary organs protecting organs from infection  Thick epithelium and mucosa allow for entrapment of antigen and give time for the immune system to react  Lymphoid follicles (nodules)  Concentrations of lymphoid tissue that form lymphoid organs o Germinal centers provide proliferation grounds for dendritic cells and B cells  Peyer patches clusters of lymphoid nodules in wall of small intestine that trap bacteria and facilitate long term immunity memory Lymphatic Organs  Primary lymphatic organs o Site where immunocompetence is learned by T cells and B cells  They learn to be immune cells here  Red bone marrow and thymus  Secondary lymphatic organs o Immunocompetent cells populate these tissues o Lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen  Tonsils o Ring of lymphatic tissue at entrance of mouth o Palatine tonsils- right and left side of oral cavity  MUMPS is inflammation of palatine tonsils o Lingual tonsil- collection of lymphoid follicles at base of tongue o Pharyngeal tonsils- on posterior wall of nasopharynx (back of the mouth) o Tonsillar crypts- invaginated epithelium that traps bacteria and particles  Surrounded by germinal centers in lymphoid follicles to attack trapped bacteria  Lymph Nodes o Fluid filtration of microorganisms and debris from loose connective tissue by macrophages o Activates the immune system  When antigens are detected by resident lymphocytes and attack is initiated o Surrounded by dense fibrous capsule o Contain trabeculae that extend from the capsule to partition the node into compartments o Outer portion is called the cortex  Contains densely packed follicles with germinal centers  Germinal centers house proliferating B cells, dendritic cells and active T cells (lymphocytes) o Inner region is called the medulla  Medullary cords are thin inward extensions from cortex that contain B cells and T cells as well as plasma cells  Medullary/Lymph sinuses are the lymph capillaries and reticular fibers  Where the macrophages reside o Flow  Afferent lymphatic vesselssubcapsular sinusmedullary sinushilumefferent lymphatic vessels  Afferent= Arrive  Efferent= Exit  There are less efferent vessels than afferent vessels creating a bottleneck effect and slowing down movement of fluid through the lymph nodes to allow lymphocytes more time to inspect fluid  Spleen o Located in abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm o Hilum is the entrance and exit place of the splenic artery and the splenic vein o Functions  Site of lymphocyte proliferation, immune surveillance and immune activation  Resident macrophages cleanse blood (remove aging RBC and platelets, debris and foreigners)  Recycle iron from hemoglobin  Site of fetal RBC production  Stores platelets  Thymus o Bilobed organ in inferior neck overlying the heart o Most prominent during childhood and slowly becomes more fat with age (and less active) o Main function is to be the site of T cell maturation (where they become immunocompetent)  Blood thymus barrier keeps the antigens in to allow for T-cell training o Epithelial cells in stroma secrete thymopoietin  Thymopoietin enables T cells to recognize and attack foreign pathogens o Thymic/Hassal’s corpuscles  Sites of T cell destruction  Produce cytosine TLSP that direct dendritic cell maturation Overwhelming of Lymphoid Tissues  Buboes and Bubonic Plague o Lymph nodes become swollen due to the very large numbers of bacteria trapped  Immune system cannot keep up with number of bacteria Immune System  Immunity- resistance to disease  There are 3 Lines of defense against disease o 1 line- Surface Barriers o 2 ndline- Internal Defenses st nd  * 1 and 2 lines are nonspecific innate defenses o 3 line- Specific Immunity  *3 line is specific and adaptive Innate Defense: Surface Barriers  Skin o Keratinization of the outermost layer of skin makes the skin waterproof and very difficult to get through o Nucleases, sweat and sebum are all produced to make the skin an inhospitable environment for organisms that may want to enter the body  Mucous Membranes o Lining of body cavities such as the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive o Key characteristic is the presence of Goblet cells that produce mucous o Stomach secretes HCl and protein digesting enzymes that kill microorganisms o Mucus traps microorganisms in digestive and respiratory passages Innate Defense: Internal Defenses When Surface is Breached  Phagocytes called upon to engulf foreign matter  Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes are all involved in innate defenses o There is NO classification of antigen, NO specific attack o Neutrophils-wander in connective tissue killing bacteria  Use phagocytosis and digestion as well as their production of bactericidal chemicals  Create a killing zone when bacteria detected by releasing lysosomes (degranulation) and virtually exploding  Before it explodes neutrophil rapidly absorbs oxygen to create toxic chemicals  Kamikaze o Eosinophils  Reside in the mucous membrane  Guard against pathogens, parasites (tapeworms and roundworms) and allergens  Needs presence of antibodies to phagocytize  Kill parasites with production of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and toxic proteins  Promote action of basophils and mast cells  LIMIT histamine and keep it in check, negating allergic response o Basophils  Secrete leukotrienes that activate and attract neutrophils and eosinophils  Secrete histamine the vasodilator that increases blood flow  Secretes heparin that inhibits clot formation to flush out area and help movement and flow of leukocytes  Mast cells also secrete these chemicals but are NOT lymphocytes o Lymphocytes  T cells, B cells and Natural Killer cells  Serve in immune surveillance and specific immunity o Monocytes  Emigrate from blood into tissue to form macrophages  Wandering macrophages actively seek out pathogens throughout loose connective tissue  Fixed macrophages only phagocytize pathogens that come to them Microglia in nervous system Alveolar macrophages in lungs Hepatic macrophages in liver Innate Defenses 2: Immune Surveillance  NK cells continually patrol the body to seek pathogens and diseases host cells o NK cell releases perforins which polymerize and form a hole in the enemy cell membrane o Granzymes from NK cell enter the perforin hole and degrade enemy cell enzymes o Enemy cell dies by apoptosis o Macrophage engulfs and digests dying cell Innate Defenses 2: Fever  Fever is an abnormally high temperature  Leukocytes and macrophages release pyrogens that affect the hypothalamus and raise the body temperature  The raise in temperature make the body environment inhospitable for organisms and may kill some o Also enhances action of antimicrobial proteins  Temperatures up to 103.5 are safe  Shivering during a fever marks the time when the body temperature is rising and moving muscles to produce heat and when one is sweating this cools the body temperature back to normal at 98.6  Antipyretics that reduce fever may hurt more than help at times Innate Defenses 2: Antimicrobial Proteins  Antimicrobial proteins are proteins that inhibit microbial reproduction and provide short term NON SPECIFIC resistance to pathogens and viruses o Interferons  Antiviral proteins that alert nearby cells that it has been infected and that they should have increased immune actions to protect themselves from the lurking virus o Complement system


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