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by: Miles Grigorian
Miles Grigorian
GPA 4.0

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I know this is being posted late, but I wanted to make sure that all of exam 1 would be on this last set of notes. Good luck!
Intro To Biology 124
Dr. Cusic
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miles Grigorian on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BY 124 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Cusic in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro To Biology 124 in Biology at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Chapter 36: Plant Transportation  Cellular Level o Cotransport  Using hydrogen ion gradient to move sucrose ions into the plant cell o Hydrogen Pumps o Osmosis  Central Vacuole  If in a hypotonic situation, water will come in and make the cell turgid  If in a hypertonic solution, water will leave the plant and the plant will wilt  Plants want to be in a hypotonic solution, or hypertonic to their environment o Three ways water can move across the root  Apoplastic  Go through just the cell wall  Symplastic  Go through the cell and the plasmodesmata between cells  Transplastic  Go through the cell and goes across the membrane instead of the plasmodesmata  Casparian Strip  Waxy strip that prevents water from passing through the wall o Water has to go through endodermal cells o Behaves like a gate keeper o Carries in water and nutrients to those cells  May be the only membrane water has to pass through o Review of Xylem and Phloem  Xylem  Carries water  Supports the plant  Cells are usually dead o Allows water to freely move through them  Cells o Tracheids  In all vascular plants o Vessel Elements  Only in Angiosperm  Heartwood o Oldest Xylem  Doesn’t carry water, but is major in support  Closest to the center of the tree  Sapwood o Younger xylem o Surrounds heartwood o Water goes through the sapwood o Water Pressure  Transpiration  Evaporation of the water through the stomata of the plant  Water evaporates from the leaf when the sun is out and the stomata are open o Creates a continuous flow of water from the roots to the stomata of the leaf  Requires no energy because transpiration powers it by solar energy  Passive energy o Have to get water out the mesophyll  Increased surface tension pulls the water out of the xylem and into the air space  When transpiration is low, then water pressure will build up in the plant  Hydathodes  Tips of the leaves where water droplets appear when there is too much pressure in the plant  Guttation o The process of pushing water to the hydathodes to keep the plant from rupturing  Cohesion  Substances attracted to themselves by charge  Water is attracted to other water molecules  Adhesion  Substances are attracted to other substances by charge  Water attaches to the sides of the xylem as it flows up  Tension  Helps pull water out of xylem  Stomata  Stoma is the opening  Two guard cells make up the opening o When the guard cells are flaccid, the stoma is closed  Plant can’t afford to lose water o When the guard cells are turgid, the stoma is open  The plant can afford to lose water  How does it Work? o Potassium Ions  When you move potassium ions into the cell, water follows it and opens up the stoma  When there are more potassium ions outside the cell, water leaves the cell and the stoma close o Light activates an ATP Proton Puno  Allows the movement of potassium ions o If there is not a lot of carbon dioxide, the stomata stay open because it needs more carbon dioxide o Circadian Rhythms  “Around the day”  Somewhat like hormones  The plant decides to reset everything, like a clock, in order to carry out all of its processes o If there is an air bubble in the xylem, then the water will be sent to a different xylem tube and the aired tube will not be used o Leaves drop when not enough water is available  Phloem  Sieve Tube Elements o Lose all of their organelles except cytoplast o Companion Cells  Direct the metabolic activity of the sieve tube elements  Moves Sugars o Moves from the leaves to the roots, or the stored energy to the leaves o Moves in many direction, unlike xylem which only moves upwards o Sucrose (disaccharide) is the way plants transports their sugars  Not glucose o Cotransport with Hydrogen Ions  If passive transport, then cells would just have an equilibrium of sucrose which may not be enough  Uses the proton pump by using ATP to pump hydrogen ions out of the cell (against their concentration gradient)  Then, hydrogen ions want to get back in, and the only way it can do it is of it goes through a cotransport pump in which sucrose comes along with the hydrogen ion o Moving sugar throughout the plant  Push sucrose into the phloem, in which water flows down its concentration gradient from the xylem into the phloem, creating positive pressure by Bulk Flow  The pressure pushes the sugars down into the roots in Sink Cells (storage root), where sucrose molecules enter the cell for storage  Plants will use this sucrose in the spring when it needs to make leaves Chapter 37: Plant Nutrition  Plants are Photoautotrophs  Essential Elements of Plants o Macronutrients  Carbon and oxygen from CO2, for example  Magnesium  Component of chlorophyll  Very important o Micronutrients  Iron  Needed in cytochromes for respiration  Nutrients needed in small amounts usually have a specific function o Fertlizers  All have 3 numbers corresponding to the order NPK (Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium)  For example, 23-54-28 would be on back  Different plants have different  Cation Exchange o Occurs in root hair o Cellular Respiration o Kick hydrogen out  H20 (in surrounding Soil) + CO2 (from plant) -------> H2CO3 -------> HCO3 + H o Nitrogen  Plants have formed symbiotic relationship with bacteria  This one is mutualistic, in which both benefit  3 types of bacteria o Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria o Ammonifying Bacteria o Nitrifying Bacteria  There are denitrifying bacteria that want to take the nitrogen from the nitrifying bacteria and release it into the atmosphere  Bacteria in the roots is now called Bacteroids because it will never leave the plant o The bacteria we want is Rhizobium o Plant sends out a signal called the Flavonoid into the bacteria that works as a transcription factor o Bacteria release a Nod factor back into the plant which causes the plant to stop making root hairs and start making Infection Threads  Allows new bacteria to enter the plant  The Pericycle develops nodules that allow the bacteria to live on  Still attaches inside the vascular cylinder in order to let the nutrients from the bacteria go into the vascular tissue o Bacteria and Plant work together to form a protein called Leghemoglobin  Holds oxygen atoms so that oxygen won’t stop cellular respiration in the rhizobium  will slowly let oxygen into the bacteria o Fungus  Mycorrhizae  “Fungus Roots”  Interacts with the root – mutualistic relationship o Fungi increase plant surface area and can absorb water and phosphate (hard for plants to absorb) o Fungi can also excrete plant materials that are needed o Fungi create growth factors o Fungi make penicillin that can protect the plant from the bacterial infections o Plant offers some of its carbohydrates to the fungus o Other organism relationships  Epiphyte  “upon plants”  Grow on other structures, usually other plants, for support o Usually doesn’t harm the tree  If too many then may cover photosynthetic organs  Parasitic Plants  Mistletoe o Can photosynthesize well but wants to use the tree’s energy because it’s lazy  Many plants that can’t photosynthesis (very rare) use other plant’s energy o Carnivorous Plants  One’s in the US usually just catch insects  Live in nitrogen poor soil, so can get nitrogen from other organisms  Bladderworts  On roots of plants  Attract the insects in the soil and a trigger suck them in so the plant can digest it Chapter 29 – Chemical Control  Hormone o “To Excite” o Cell Receptors  Reception  Accept a hormone or chemical signal to promote a change  Chemical has to be small so it can go through membrane  Transduction  Hormone gets relayed into the cell and tells cell what to do  Second messenger can be produced to take hormone to a Kinase (phosphate enzyme) o cGMP (cyclic)  Response  Cell reacts to hormone  Can affect in plants: o Cell activities o Membrane functions o Site of action (stem or root) o Growth and development o Concentration of other hormones o Stage of plant growth  Don’t need a lot of hormone to start something because of Amplification o The hormone will be multiplied to numerous transductions o Plant Promoters  Auxin  Any hormone that is going to cause the elongation of Coleoptiles o Sheath cover of the embryonic shoot o Plants bend toward light  AKA Phototropism  Darwin o cut the coleoptiles at the tip of a plant and found they didn’t grow  light receptors at the tip o Something had to move through the plant to get there  Cut the tip and placed it on a mica slap (impermeable) and a gelatin slab (permeable) and placed it back on the plant  Gelatin grew towards light, and mica didn’t o Excised tip on an agar cube and placed agar tube on top to collect chemical and which way it went  Indole Acetic Acid o Auxin doesn’t travel in vascular tissue o Polar auxin transport  pH 5 in cell and Ph 7 out of cell  auxin picks up a hydrogen in the cell and makes the cell neutral and moves into the next cell where ionizes  cell pumps out the hydrogen  Has to leave the plant cell from the bottom, but is how it moves through the plant o Acid Growth Hypothesis  All these enzymes break up the cell wall and water moves in the cell  Cell elongates which causes it to bend  Turns on or off the enzyme that loosens the cell walls of selected cells as Auxin moves down  The cells perpendicular to the light will elongate and the cell wall will reform in which it causes the plant to lean o Statoliths  Counterweights in cells that bends the root by pushing down on certain parts of cells o Inhibits Axillary Growth  Effect on Fruit Development  Leaf Abscission o Leaves fall off o High levels of Auxins result in retarding leaf fall  Is cut off from the vascular system during the fall  Promoting Cell Division in lateral and adventitious root formations  245 T o Kills plants, primarily in pine forests o Cause neurological damages  Many soldiers in Vietnam got these affects o Auxin found in 245 T  Causes the plant to grow so fast the it can’t make and distribute its resources fast enough so it dies o Kills dicots but not monocots  Gibberellin  Found in rice seedlings and would grow so fast  Causes stem elongation by cell elongation and division  Break seed and apical bud dormancy o Invigorates alpha-amylase, which breaks down sugars  Spray on trees to get bigger and better fruits  Travels in vascular system  Cytokinins  Stimulates cytokinesis o Actively growing o Causes transcription and translation  Zeatin o Encourages branch growth and flowering o Prevents yellowing of vegetables  Works with Auxins o Come from roots and override apical dominance of Auxin o Think of Christmas tree  Cytokinins are denser towards the bottom, and auxins are denser towards the top  Reason why Christmas tree branch lengths get shorter has you go up the stem o Plant Inhibitors  Abscisic Acid (ABA)  Inhibits growth and promotes desiccation o Leaf falling  Keeps seed from germinating if conditions are yet suitable o Soak up seeds as a way to soak up the inhibitors  Will stop primary and secondary growth  Leaf Abscission  Decrease in cell division  Closes stomata when water is low  Works in relation to other hormones  Ethylene  Gas that moves through the air spaces in the plant  Has a relation to auxin and ABA  Involved in fruit ripening o “One bad apple spoils the lot” o Rotting in fruit  Inhibits root elongation  Causes flowering o Can mean the end of the plant’s life  Causes a lot of changes in the plant that will lead to death o Apoptosis  Programmed cell death  Affects growth of plant o Plants become shorter when ethylene concentrations are higher o Blast apples with ethylene so they look redder but are closer to death o Thigmotropism  Movement due to touch  Sensitive brier  Plant in Alabama that if you touch it, the leaves will start to point to your finger o Exposes the briers o Possible that there is a predator and a predator won’t want to mess with the brier  Sleep Movements  24-hour cycle o Leaves are up at noon, but are down at night o Moving water out at noon, and holding on to water at night o Light sensitive molecules tell the plant when it is light and when it is dark  Thigmomorphogenesis  Change its growth pattern (usually to short and stalky) because it’s stressed o Caused by ethylene when wind touches the plant  Mimosa Tree o How does the plant know when it’s time to flower?  Photoperiodism  Any physiological response to photoperiod o Photosynthesis (light reaction specifically because the sun is out)  Short Day Plant o AKA long night plants o Bloom more at night  Flash of light at night will keep plant from flowering because it needs a certain amount of darkness  Thinks darkness has stopped  Long Day Plant o AKA short night plant o Blooms more during the day  Needs certain amount of light to bloom  If you flash light at it during the night, it will bloom  If no light in darkness, then won’t bloom  Grafted a long day plant to a short day plant o Thought there was a hormone that controlled either long or short day habits o Or, was a combination of auxin and gibberellin o Bloomed with the hybrid  Far Red and Red Light o Plants look at the last flash of light they see o STUDY BECAUSE WILL BE ON TEST  STUDY WHAT KINDS OF RED LIGHT WILL DETERMINE IF SOMETHING WILL BLOOM OR NOT, WHETHER IT’S A SHORT DAY OR LONG DAY o How does it detect  Protein with two identical subunits with kinase activities  Alternates between PR (Red) and PFR (Far red)  PR is more stable o Plant Communicate with Animals  Caterpillar is chewing on the leaves of the plants, stressing the plant stressed  Plant releases a volatile attractant that attracts a parasitoid wasp which lays eggs in the caterpillar  Wasp larvae hatch and eat the caterpillar from the inside out  If kill caterpillar before mature, then caterpillar can’t lay thousands of eggs on the plant END FOR TEST !


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