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Psychology 101: Week 6 Class Notes on Memory

by: Aspen Notetaker

Psychology 101: Week 6 Class Notes on Memory PSY 101

Marketplace > Arizona State University > College of Liberal Arts and Sciences > PSY 101 > Psychology 101 Week 6 Class Notes on Memory
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About this Document

The whole first half of Chunk Two on Memory.
Intro to Psych
Cavanaugh Toft
Class Notes
Psychology, psych, memory




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Popular in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aspen Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Cavanaugh Toft in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Arizona State University.

Similar to PSY 101 at ASU

Popular in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences


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Date Created: 09/21/16
PSY101 MEMORY  Three steps of memory  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval  ENCODING: Translating information into some form that allows it to be stored.  Attention: Focus awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events.  Levels of processing: Degree to which information is attended to.  Structural Encoding: Focusing on the physical structure of a stimulus. (i.e. Font  color or size)  Phonemic Encoding: Focusing on sound. (i.e. repeating to yourself)  Sematic Encoding: Focus on the meaning of the stimulus (i.e. Understanding the  concept)  How do we enrich encoding?  Link stimulus to previously learned information.  Visual Imagery   Dual Coding: Sematic & Visual STORAGE: Information is retained in the brain for a short period of time.  Sensory Memory: Holds info in its original form sensory form. (i.e. still feeling a hug  after the person has already left.  Iconic Memory holds visual image Both for ¼ o sec.  Echoic Memory holds auditory image   Short Term Memory: Maintains information for about 20­30 sec.  Millers Magic #: We remember 7 pieces of information give or take 2.  Chunking: Breaking up information into chunks in order to better retain it.  Long Term Memory: Unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods of time.  Procedural Memory: Remembering how to do things like tie your shoe.  Declarative Memory: Factual information.  Semantic Memory: General Knowledge like dogs have legs, people have  brains, I’m thinking right now etc…  Episodic Memory:  Dated recollections of personal experiences like  th getting your first dog or your 16  birthday. How does information get into Long Term Memory?  Serial­position Effect: People tend to remember the beginning and ends of a list but  forget the middle.  Primary Effect: Info retained at the beginning.  Recentcy Effect: Info retained at the end.  Flashbulb Memory: Detailed memory of meaningful events. RETRIEVAL: Process by which information is located and then pulled out of memory.  Tip­of­the­tongue­phenomenon: Temporary inability to remember things you know you  know. (Try saying the months of the year on the spot in 10 seconds in alphabetical order)  Retrieval Cues: Stimuli in surrounding that help us gain access to memory.  Context Clues: Stimuli that help us remember things. (Picturing yourself coming  home the night before when you can’t find your keys in the morning.  Mood: Information learned when you’re in a certain mood retrieved more easily  in that same mood.  State Dependent Memory: Information learned in a certain state that is  easily retrieved in that same state. (i.e. If you learn something while  you’re stressed out you’ll find it easier when you are stressed out) Why do we forget?  Inattention: You don’t remember the faces on a penny even though you handle one  regularly because you don’t pay close enough attention.  Ineffective Encoding: Not getting the information deep enough into your head to solidify  it into long term memory.  Decay: If you don’t use it you lose it.  Interference: Competition with other materials.  Retroactive: New info interferes with old info.  Proactive: Old info interferes with new info.  Mismatch: Only learning information in one direction. (i.e. Only learning flashcards in  one direction, name to definition. Then when you are given the definition you can’t recall the name)  Motivated Forgetting: Suppression of memories you don’t want.  Amnesia: Memory loss usually caused by head injuries.  Retrograde Amnesia: Loss of memories for events that occur before an incident.  Anterograde Amnesia: Having memories up to the injury and then nothing after. How can we improve memory?  Mnemonics: Learning devices like Soh Cah Toa for trigonometry or LEJCASR for the  constitution. (i.e. Acronyms)  Cute Sayings: “I before E except after C”  Make material meaningful by attaching it to something that personally matters to you.  Use multiple types of encoding.  Seek retrieval cues.  Minimize Interference.  Study in small chunks.  Study Repetitively


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