Chapter 6 Class Notes
Popular in Human Sexuality
Popular in Psychology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirsten Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Lewis University taught by Lisa Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychology at Lewis University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Chapter 6 Notes Sexual response Virginia Johnson and William Masters 312 men and 382 women Ages 18-89 Laboratory: plain room with bed and recording equipment Recorded over 10,000 sexual episodes leading to orgasm Measured: o Heart rate o Blood pressure o Muscle tension o Respiration o Brain waves o Volume of blood in genitals Sexual response cycle Four phases: o Excitement o Plateau o Orgasm o Resolution Phases are arbitrarily defined Stages flow together Desire Drive/motivation for sexual activity Masters and Johnson do not include desire - can't measure Helen Kaplan added desire Perceptivity: lust or libido Arousability: capacity to become aroused Men o Desire and arousal are usually connected Women o Desire and arousal not always connected o May feel desire without physical evidence o No lubrication o No increased blood flow to genitals o Discrepancy between women's reports of arousal and physical evidence o Lubricated women is at lower risk for vaginal tearing and infection if sex is nonconsensual Men's sexual response cycle: excitement (arousal) Increase in heart rate/blood pressure Scrotum thickens o Muscle contracts o Testicles engorge with blood, enlarge, elevate Erection of the penis o Begins with 3-8 seconds after stimulation o Tissues are engorged with blood Nipple erection Sex flush: rash-like reddening of the skin of the upper abdomen and chest caused by dilating capillaries Erections not always related to sexual content Baby boys REM sleep Women's sexual response cycle: excitement Vaginal walls become engorged with blood Vaginal lubrication: o Secretion of few drops of fluid on inner surface o 1st physiological response o Does not mean woman is ready to begin Labia majora: flatten, begin to move apart Labia minora: increase in size and darken in color Inner 2/3 of the vaginal walls open; outer 1/3 narrows Cervix and uterus pull up Clitoris becomes erect and engorges with blood, increasing in size Nipples become erect; areolae darken Women vs. men: excitement Men o Erection of penis o Confirms or amplifies arousal o Noticeably physical Women o Slight vaginal lubrication o May not even notice o Subjective? Situational cues? Plateau stage Genitalia deepens in color Sex flush further spreads Increase in: heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, muscle tension Lasts few seconds to few minutes Longer than plateau, stronger the orgasm Men's sexual response cycle: plateau High sexual arousal Sets stage for orgasm Can be quite short in some men Dimeter of penis increases Cowper's gland releases fluid to protect sperm Testicles fully engorge with blood o Size increase is 50-100% o Elevate and rotate Women's sexual response cycle: plateau Clitoris shortens and pulls back under clitoral hood Breasts (areolas) engorge with blood and swell o Nipple erection Secretion of fluids from vaginal walls decrease as plateau phase is prolonged Labia minora thicken in size and change in color (pink to wine) Inner 2/3 of vagina expands Outer 1/3 of vagina engorge with blood and swell Narrowing of vaginal opening Penis size Orgasm Feeling of euphoria Facial contortions Loss of voluntary muscle control Spasms of hands/feet Release of muscle tension Vocalization (shouting, sighing) Peak in: o Blood pressure o Respiratory rate o Heart rate Brain areas related to reward are activated Amygdala shuts down Release of hormones: o Prolactin - sleepy feeling o Endorphins - pleasure o Oxytocin - sexual bonding Definition: rhythmic muscular contractions that initially occurred every 0.8 seconds, but then diminish in intensity and regularity Men's sexual response cycle: orgasm Emission: o Rhythmic muscular contractions Vans deferens Prostate gland Seminal vesicles o Forces sperm and prostate/seminal fluid into ejaculatory ducts (forming semen) o Muscles contract closing urethra o "I'm coming!" feeling (ejaculatory inevitability) Expulsion (ejaculation): o Contraction in urethra and muscles at base of penis o Force semen from the penis o Muscles surrounding urethra contract further o Orgasm including stimulation of prostate o Occurs in spurts 1st contains sperm 2nd contains spermicidal secretions from seminal vesicles Orgasm vs. ejaculation Orgasm - subjective pleasurable sensations Ejaculation - release of semen from the body Two different events Do not always occur together Epididymo-orchitis Inflammation of the testicles and epididymis Sexual arousal not resulting in ejaculation Blood collects in testicles - ache and bluish tinge in scrotum Does not last long Does not cause permanent damage Similar condition does exist for women Women's sexual response cycle: orgasm Muscles around clitoris contract Clitoris engorges with blood - muscle reflex 3-15 contractions at 0.8 second intervals Fluid from Skene's glands Less than 1/3 of women have vaginal orgasms regularly Occurs in single stage Multiple orgasms More than one orgasm before returning to pre-plateau level Clitoris may be too sensitive Multiple factors impact woman's ability to orgasm Sexual response cycle: resolution Men o Return to the unaroused state o Loss of erection (normal blood flow to penis) o Decrease in testicle size o Movement of testicles away from body Women o Return to unaroused state o Return to normal size o Return to normal color Men's sexual response cycle: resolution Refractory period: o Rime after an orgasm in which it is physiologically impossible for a man to achieve another orgasm Occurs during resolution phase After orgasm, physiological responses fall below plateau level Must reach plateau level to have an orgasm Different for each man Tends to last longer as men age Tends to last longer after each successive orgasm "Coolidge Effect" Women vs. men: sexual response cycle Men o Lineal model Physiology Genital arousal o Desire driven by biology Testosterone o Higher level of sexual desire Frequency of sexual thoughts Preferred frequency of sex Frequency of masturbation Women o Non-linear model Intimacy needs Relational context Cognitive interpretation of sexual stimulation o Desire driven by relationship and intimacy needs o Sexual desire is responsive not spontaneous External substances Aphrodisiacs - substances that are thought to cause arousal or increase sexual response Examples: o Genitals of bulls/rams o Ground horns of rhinoceros, reindeer o Sugared milk in which testicles of bull or ram have been boiled o Vegetables that resemble genitalia Anaphrodisiacs - substances that inhibit sexual response o Antidepressants (Prozac) Delay or make erections/orgasms difficult o Opioids (codeine, heroin, oxytocin, cough suppressants) Diminish sexual function Orgasms difficult o Nicotine Constricts blood vessels Genitals unable to engorge with blood
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