NHM 361 Nucleic Acid Notes on 9/21
NHM 361 Nucleic Acid Notes on 9/21 NHM 361
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Amy Cameron Ellis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Nutritional Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
NHM 361 Notes on Nucleic Acids on 9/21 Structure Nucleic acids are biomolecules that transfer genetic information o Can either be deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) o Central Dogma of Biology states that : DNARNAProtein DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides o A nucleotide is a monomer of nucleic acids and is made up of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and a phosphate In RNA the sugar is ribose In DNA the sugar is deoxyribose Nucletotide nitrogenous bases o Classified as pyrimidines or purines Pyrimidines have a single ring structure Include Uracil , Thymine and Cytosine o Uracil is exclusive to RNA o Thymine is exclusive to DNA Purines have a double ring structure Include Adenine and Guanine Phosphate Group of nucleotides is essential because the negative charge on two oxygens makes it excellent at forming bonds Joining of Nucleotides Phosphodiester bonds join individual nucleotides together o Joined from 5’ carbon to the 3’ carbon DNA DNA exists as a double helical structure o Structure occurs because of the hydrogen bonding between complementary nitrogenous bases on the antiparallel strands Thymine always pairs with Adenine Guanine always pairs with Cytosine A good acronym is TAGC o Sugar- phosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases are the components of the strands DNA in human cells exists in the form of chromatin o Chromatin is made up of DNA wrapped around histones o Condensed, tightly coiled chromatin during cell division is called a chromosome Heredity Gene is a sequence of nucleotides on a DNA molecule that determine the sequence of the polypeptide chain Genome is the collection of genes that specify an organism’s structure and function During DNA replication a cell makes an exact copy of DNA o Helicase catalyzes the unwinding of the double heliz by breajking the hydrogen bonds o The point of unwinding is called the replication fork o This process is called semi-conservative because each original “parent” strand of DNA serves as the template for the new DNA strand Old strand is not destroyed o DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strand of DNA from the template New strands can only be synthesized in the 5’ to 3’ direction DNA strands run antiparallel so only one strand is in the 5’ to 3’ orientation This is the leading strand The strand that is in the 3’ to 5’ orientation is called the lagging strand because DNA polymerase cannot continuously synthesize DNA and instead creates fragments called Okazaki fragments DNA ligase covalently joins Okazaki fragments RNA Single stranded polymer of nucleotides Consists of ribose, nitrogenous bases and a phosphate group Instead of Thymine contains Uracil o Adenine, Uracil, Guanosine and Cytosine Three kinds of RNA exist o Messenger RNA o Transfer RNA o Ribosomal RNA
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