Chapter 5: Chemical Accounting
Chapter 5: Chemical Accounting Ch 1043
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Taflinger on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Ch 1043 at Mississippi State University taught by Laura Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Survey to Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Chapter 5: Chemical Accounting ● Chemical equation ○ Symbols and formulas to represent the elements and compounds involved in the charge. Example C+O →2O 2 (+) indicates that carbon and oxygen are added together ( → ) is read “yield(s)” or “react(s) to produce” ● Reactants ○ Substances on the left of the arrow ○ Starting Materials ● Products ○ Those on the right of the arrow ● Sometimes, we indicate the physical states of the reactants and products by writing the initial letter of the state ○ (g): gaseous substances ○ (l): liquid ○ (s): solid ○ (aq): water C(s)+O (2)→C O (g) 2 ● Balancing Chemical Equation H 2O →2 O 2 H 2O →2 H O 2 2 H2+O 22H O 2 H2 H2 H2 2x2 = H4 2x2 = H4 2x2 = H4 O2 O1 O2 2x1 = O2 O2 2x1 = O2 (Not Balanced) (Not Balanced) (Balanced) 1. If an element occurs in just one substance on each side of the equation, try balancing that element first 2. Balance any reactants or products that exist as the free elements last. 3. When you add a coefficient to the compound to correct one element, be aware that it will also change the number of atoms in other related elements ● Law of combining volumes ○ When all measurements are made at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products are in small wholenumber ratios. ● Avogadro’s hypothesis ○ Based on a shrewd interpretation of experimental facts, was that equal volumes of all gases, when measured at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules. ● Avogadro’s number ○ The number of carbon12 atoms in a 12g sample of carbon 12 ○ Has been determined experimentally to be 23 23 6.022367×10 /6.02×10 ● Mole(mol) ○ An amount of any substance or item that contains the same number of elementary units as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon 12 ● Formula mass ○ The sum of masses of the atoms represented in the formula Example CO 2 = 1 carbon atom × atomic mass of C + 2 oxygen atom × atomic mass O = × 12.0u + 2 × 16.0u = 44.0u ● Percent composition bymassC=massC÷ MassCO ×100 2 ● Stoichiometry ○ The quantitative relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction ● Stoichiometric factor ○ Relates the amounts, in moles, of any two substances involved in a chemical equations ● Mass Relationships in chemical equations ○ Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction ○ Determine the molar masses of the substances involved in the calculation ○ Use coefficients (stoichiometric relationship) from the balanced chemical equation to convert moles of the given substance to moles of the desired substance. ○ Use the molar mass to convert moles of the desired substance to grams of the desired substance. ● Solution ○ Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances ● Aqueous solutions ○ Those in which water is the solvent, and we take a more quantitative look at the relationship between solute and solvent. ● Dilute solution ○ One that contains a relatively small amount of solute in lots of solvent ● Concentrated solution ○ Relatively large amount of solute dissolved in a small amount of solvent ● Molarity ○ The amount of solute, in moles, per liter of solution ● Percent by volume ○ Often used because liquid volumes are easily measured ● Percent by mass ○ Many commercial solutions are labeled with the concentration
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