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Terminology for Midterm 1 for PSY 220 Research Methods

by: Madison Ultimate Notetaker

Terminology for Midterm 1 for PSY 220 Research Methods Psy 220

Madison Ultimate Notetaker
Long Beach State

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About this Document

These notes are just terms mentioned din the book which are important to know when taking the exams and quizzes.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Richard Rosenberg
Class Notes
research methods, Psychology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Ultimate Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 220 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Richard Rosenberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
P S Y   2 2 0   T e r m i n o l o g y   f o r   M i d t e r m   1  | 1 applied research ­ research whose goal is to find a solution to a particular real­world problem association claim ­ a claim about two variables, in which the value (level) of one variable is said to vary  systematically with the value of another variable availability heuristic ­ the tendency to rely predominantly on evidence that easily comes to mind rather  than use all possible evidence in evaluating a conclusion basic research ­ research whose goal is to enhance the general body of knowledge, without regard for  direct application to practical problems bias blind spot ­ the tendency for people to think that compared to others, they are less likely to engage in  biased reasoning casual claim ­ a claim arguing that a specific change in one variable is responsible for influencing the  value of another variable claim ­ the argument a journalist, researcher, or scientist is trying to make comparison group ­ group in an experiment whose level on the independent variable differs from those of  the treatment group in some intended and meaningful way conceptual definition ­ a researcher's definition of a variable at the theoretical level conceptual variable ­ a variable of interest, stated at an abstract, or conversational, level confederate ­ an actor who is directed by the researchers to play a specific role in a research study confirmatory hypothesis testing ­ the tendency to only ask the questions that will lead to the expected  answer confound ­ a general term for a potential alternative explanation for a research finding (a threat to internal validity) constant ­ an attribute that could potentially vary but that has only one level in the study in question construct ­ a variable of interest, stated at an abstract level, usually defined as part of formal statement of  psychological theory P S Y   2 2 0   T e r m i n o l o g y   f o r   M i d t e r m   1  | 2 construct validity ­ an indication of how well a variable was measured or manipulated in a study correlate ­ to occur or vary together systematically, as in the case of two variables correlational study ­ a study that includes two or more variables, in which all of the variables are  measured; can support an association claim covariance ­ one of three criteria for establishing a casual claim, which states that the proposed causal  variable must vary systematically with changes in the proposed outcome variable data ­ set of observations dependent variable ­ in an experiment, the variable that is measured. In a multiple­regression analysis, the single outcome, or criterion variable, the researchers are most interested in understanding or predicting effect size ­  empirical journal article ­  empiricism; empirical method; empirical research ­ involves using evidence from the senses (sight,  hearing, touch) or from instruments that assist the senses (thermometers, timers, photographs, weight  scales, and questionnaires) as the basis for conclusions evidence­based treatments ­ therapies that are supported by research experiment ­ a study in which one variable is manipulated and the other is measured external validity ­ an indication of how well the results of a study generalize to, or represent, individuals  or contexts besides those in the study itself falsifiability ­ a feature of a scientific theory, in which it is possible to collect data that will prove the  theory wrong frequency claim ­  generalizability ­  good theories ­ are supported by data are falsifiable  P S Y   2 2 0   T e r m i n o l o g y   f o r   M i d t e r m   1  | 3 have parsimony hypothesis ­ prediction; way of stating the specific outcome the researcher expects to observe if the theory is accurate independent variable ­  internal validity ­  journalism ­  level ­  margin of error estimate ­  measured variable ­  meta­analysis ­  negative association ­  operational definition ­  operational variable ­  operationalize ­  parsimony ­  positive association ­  present/present bias ­  probabilistic ­  random assignment ­ the use of a random method to assign participants into different experimental groups review journal article ­  scatterplot ­  scientific journal ­  statistical validity ­  temporal precedence ­  P S Y   2 2 0   T e r m i n o l o g y   f o r   M i d t e r m   1  | 4 theory ­ set of statements that describes general principles about how variables relate to one another theory­data cycle ­ theory­­> research questions­­> research design­­> hypotheses­­> data­­>then back to  theory translational research ­  Type I error ­  Type II Error ­  validity ­ the appropriateness of a conclusion or decision variable ­ an attribute that varies, having at least two levels, or values weight of the evidence ­ a conclusion drawn from reviewing scientific literature and considering the  proportion of studies that is consistent with that theory zero association ­ a lack of systematic association between two variables; also called zero correlation


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