Psych 102, Week 4 notes
Psych 102, Week 4 notes Psych 102
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Goldman on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 102 at Towson University taught by Amy L. Bennet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Honors Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
C. Neuroanatomy Brain and Spinal Cord About 3lbs Very soft (like Tofu) Uses 20% of blood supply Strokes result from a loss of blood flow to part of brain Can either be caused by blood leaks or clot stopping blood supply A. Protection Meninges (glia cells) Outer covering over brain and spinal cord Infected in meningitis (become inflamed and push on the brain) Ventricles Holes inside brain that contain cerebral spinal fluid that support the brain from the inside out Cushion and support brain B. Forebrain 1. The Cortex Outer bumpy surface of brain Can be divided into two hemispheres Each hemisphere has four different lobes with different set of functions Frontal lobe Thought, problem solving, movement, speech production (not understanding): generally higher functions Broca’s Area (left hemisphere) Speech Production and movement? Parietal Lobe Sense of touch Temporal Lobe (left side, lower part of brain near ears) Hearing, speech comprehension Wernicke’s area produces speech If Broca’s area is not working, she can’t say much of what she is thinking If Wernicke’s area is not working, they can’t produce any speech or meaningful expressive language Occipital Lobe (back of brain) Vision Corpus Callosum Connects the two hemispheres Left side of brain has language 2. Limbic System Amygdala (lower middle part of brain) Regulates emotions, especially fear People with damaged amygdala, they understand something is dangerous, they don’t feel fear or panic Hippocampus (lower middle part of brain right next to amygdala) Memory formation, not where old memories are stored H.M.’s hippocampus was removedcould for motor skills and classical conditioning, but not remember events. Could have short term memory, not long term memory If there was a hippo on campus, it would be memorable Damaged in Alzheimer’s disease 3. Basal Ganglia Movement Basal Ganglia is damaged in Huntington’s disease Frontal lobe communicates with Basal Ganglia, basal ganglia goes through itself and then communicates with other parts of brain 4. Diencephalonat center of brain Thalamus Relay for the sensesother than sense of smell, information goes through thalamus before going to part of brain. Puts all senses together so you understand what you’re seeing and hearing as one experience Hypothalamusunder thalamus toward front Endocrine regulation, thirst, hunger, reproduction (hormone regulation) Controls small endocrine gland Pituitary Gland Master endocrine gland Controls all other endocrine gland throughout body (all other hormone glands) C. Midbrain (not in middle of brain, normally, just in brain development) Substantia Nigra Movement Releases dopamine Dies with Parkinson’s disease D. Hindbrain (bottom back of brain) Pons (bulge at top of spinal cord right at start of brain) Sleep, dreaming Cerebellum (little brain at back of cortex) Balance, coordination, motor learning If you don’t have muscle memory with walking, it looks like a drunk person is walking Alcohol effects Cerebellum because it inhibits GABA Why H.M. could learn how to write things without new memory Medulla Oblongata located right beneath pons Breathing, pulse, yawning, sneezing, coughing, etc. Alcohol also inhibits Medulla Oblongata to suppress breathing Marijuana does not inhibit this Reticular formation (runs through hind brain and midbrain) Sleep and wakefulness, arousal, and pain When it is suppressed, you fall asleep Releases Norepinephrine and serotonin E. Spinal Cord Width of little finger Conveys information from peripheral nervous system (all the stuff that’s not the brain or spinal cord) to brain and back again Constantly transferring information Review Questions Which brain area connects the two hemispheres? Corpus Callosum Which brain area would you expect to be damaged in a patient who can’t form new memories? Hippocampus Which brain area would you expect to be damaged in a patient with numbness on the left side of body? Parietal lobe What is the function of the pituitary gland? Master endocrine gland Controls all other endocrine gland throughout body (all other hormone glands) Which brain area dies in Parkinson’s disease? Substantia Nigra