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Bio 243

by: Emily Turner
Emily Turner


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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the quiz tomorrow.
Human Anat & Physiology I
Lewis Bowmen
Class Notes
cells, tissues, epithelial tissues, nervous, connective, DNA, replication, Protien, simple, Squamous, Cuboidal, stratified, columnar
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Turner on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Lewis Bowmen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Continue…Cell Cell -compartmentalized w/ various organelles (look on cell diagram) Organelles -Mitochondria (pic on slide)  two membranes: Inner and Outer  “powerhouse of the cell”  glucose+O2CO2+H2O  ADP+PATP (energy)  Mitochondria is important for Apoptosis: programmed cell death (suicide) -Ribosome (little dots on cell diagram)  RNA+Protein  Small subunit and LARGE subunit  Translates messenger RNA proteins  Synthesize proteins -Endoplasmic Reticulum (pic on slide)  Membrane bound  2 Types: o Smooth ER (SER): -NO ribosomes -synthesizes phospholipids -Detoxification o Rough ER (RER): -ribosomes ATTATCHED -synthesize proteins that will be secretedgoes into:  Golgi bodies  lysosome  part of ER  form various membrane proteins -Golgi Bodies: series of flattened vesicles like ER (pic on slide)  Modifies and packages protein synthesizes on RER -Lysosomes: membrane bound (see drawing of pathway for transportation)  Contains hydrolases-breakdown or digest of RNA, Protein…  Highly acidic -Cytoskeleton: series of filaments  3 Types: o 1. Microfilaments: actin (on PP)  Maintain shape  Locomotion  Actin: polymerizeadd actin polypeptides to make filaments long Depolymerize take away actin to make filaments smaller o 2. Intermediate: tissue specific (on PP)  Epithelial keratin filaments  Nervous neuro-filaments (strength, resist mechanical stress) o 3. Microtubules (largest) (on PP)  tubulin  polymerize and depolymerize  maintains shape  chromosome movement  transports other molecules  Motor molecules (on PP) o Move molecules and vesicles throughout cell. Usually involves microtubules o Sliding filament (Microtubules or Microfilaments) -Cilia and Flagella (pic on PP)  Contains microtubules  9+2 arrangement (NOT on exam) Cilia:  found in cells on respiratory tract  motion due to sliding Flagella:  found in sperm  wiggle motion -Nucleus (on PP)  DNA replication takes place  RNA synthesis  RNA processing  Nuclear envelope: double layered membrane with pores. Allow certain things to go into nucleus.  Nucleolus: ribosome assemble  Cromatin: DNA bound to various proteins o 1. Nucleosome: DNA wraps around histone protein *DNA replication  –enzyme: DNA polymerase  Humans, DNA replication is faithful  DNA repair of errors  Steps: o Strands separate  Cell cycle o 22 pairs of chromosomes, TOTAL 46 chromosomes  XX: female, XY:male o 10-70 hours o Cancer results from when cell cycle and apoptosis screws up o Check points  1) DNA damage checkpoint  2) Completition of S-phase  3) Start/restriction: Factors affecting start  1) Energy  2)Contact with other cells  3) Growth factors  Protein Synthesis (KNOW slide for Flow of Info from DNA to Protein) o Overview: DNAtransciptionRNA (RNA processing)translatation (cytoplasm)Protein  (yellow is formed in nucleus) o 3 nucleotides 1 amino acid o Gene has info for 1 polypeptide o 25,000 genes o Process:  1) Transcription: RNA synthesis. Multi step process (on PP)  RNA polymerase Steps: o 1) Initation: starting  Promoter: sequence of DNA. RNA polymerase binds and initates transcription  Tightly regulated o 2) Elongation: RNA forms o 3) Termination: DNA sequence specifies STOP  2) Translation: synthesis of protein from mRNA template (on PP)  Ribosomal RNA’s  Messenger RNA: mRNA o 3 Nucleotides 1 Amino acid=codon (on PP) o 64 possible codons (20 amino acids)  Degenerate code: more than one codon expressing same amnio acid  Not overlapping  61 codons specify amino acids  3 nucleiotide sequences specify STOP translation  Transfer RNA: tRNA o adaptor o cloverleaf shape o tRNA with attatched grouping peptide attatched to P site on ribosome o tRNA with correct amino acid binds to A-site on ribosome o peptide bound is formed o ribosome moves down mRNA o Sequences enomeDNAKnow amino acid sequence o Association studies: large population of people, which ones have which genes Tissues: Groups of cells of a similar type Types: (on PP) 1) Nervous 2) Muscle 3) Epithelial 4) Connective Epithelial Tissue  Location: all free surfaces, glands  Functions: 1) Protection 2) Secretion 3) Absorption  Characteristics:  Free surface  Basement membrane -extracellular 3) Little intercellular space 4) Avascular: NO blood vessels  Classification: (on PP) -Number of cell layers 1) Pseudostratified: all cell contact basement membrane, but do not reach free surface 2) Shape at free surface -Squamous (flat) -Cuboidal (cube) -Columnar (column) 1) Simple Squamous: (on PP all)  thin  involved in diffusion and filtration  Capillaries and alveoli 2) Stratified Squamous:  Thick  Protection  Skin, mouth, vagina, anus 3) Simple Columnar  Large amt. of cytoplasm  Secretion, absoption  Digestive tract  Microvili 4) Simple Cuboidal  Salivary glands 5) Pseudostratifed Columnar  Respiratory tract  Ciliated 6) Transitional  Bladder  Change shape/flexible (bladder full vs. empty)


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