Bio 243 BIOL 243 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Turner on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Lewis Bowmen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Continue…Cell Cell -compartmentalized w/ various organelles (look on cell diagram) Organelles -Mitochondria (pic on slide) two membranes: Inner and Outer “powerhouse of the cell” glucose+O2CO2+H2O ADP+PATP (energy) Mitochondria is important for Apoptosis: programmed cell death (suicide) -Ribosome (little dots on cell diagram) RNA+Protein Small subunit and LARGE subunit Translates messenger RNA proteins Synthesize proteins -Endoplasmic Reticulum (pic on slide) Membrane bound 2 Types: o Smooth ER (SER): -NO ribosomes -synthesizes phospholipids -Detoxification o Rough ER (RER): -ribosomes ATTATCHED -synthesize proteins that will be secretedgoes into: Golgi bodies lysosome part of ER form various membrane proteins -Golgi Bodies: series of flattened vesicles like ER (pic on slide) Modifies and packages protein synthesizes on RER -Lysosomes: membrane bound (see drawing of pathway for transportation) Contains hydrolases-breakdown or digest of RNA, Protein… Highly acidic -Cytoskeleton: series of filaments 3 Types: o 1. Microfilaments: actin (on PP) Maintain shape Locomotion Actin: polymerizeadd actin polypeptides to make filaments long Depolymerize take away actin to make filaments smaller o 2. Intermediate: tissue specific (on PP) Epithelial keratin filaments Nervous neuro-filaments (strength, resist mechanical stress) o 3. Microtubules (largest) (on PP) tubulin polymerize and depolymerize maintains shape chromosome movement transports other molecules Motor molecules (on PP) o Move molecules and vesicles throughout cell. Usually involves microtubules o Sliding filament (Microtubules or Microfilaments) -Cilia and Flagella (pic on PP) Contains microtubules 9+2 arrangement (NOT on exam) Cilia: found in cells on respiratory tract motion due to sliding Flagella: found in sperm wiggle motion -Nucleus (on PP) DNA replication takes place RNA synthesis RNA processing Nuclear envelope: double layered membrane with pores. Allow certain things to go into nucleus. Nucleolus: ribosome assemble Cromatin: DNA bound to various proteins o 1. Nucleosome: DNA wraps around histone protein *DNA replication –enzyme: DNA polymerase Humans, DNA replication is faithful DNA repair of errors Steps: o Strands separate Cell cycle o 22 pairs of chromosomes, TOTAL 46 chromosomes XX: female, XY:male o 10-70 hours o Cancer results from when cell cycle and apoptosis screws up o Check points 1) DNA damage checkpoint 2) Completition of S-phase 3) Start/restriction: Factors affecting start 1) Energy 2)Contact with other cells 3) Growth factors Protein Synthesis (KNOW slide for Flow of Info from DNA to Protein) o Overview: DNAtransciptionRNA (RNA processing)translatation (cytoplasm)Protein (yellow is formed in nucleus) o 3 nucleotides 1 amino acid o Gene has info for 1 polypeptide o 25,000 genes o Process: 1) Transcription: RNA synthesis. Multi step process (on PP) RNA polymerase Steps: o 1) Initation: starting Promoter: sequence of DNA. RNA polymerase binds and initates transcription Tightly regulated o 2) Elongation: RNA forms o 3) Termination: DNA sequence specifies STOP 2) Translation: synthesis of protein from mRNA template (on PP) Ribosomal RNA’s Messenger RNA: mRNA o 3 Nucleotides 1 Amino acid=codon (on PP) o 64 possible codons (20 amino acids) Degenerate code: more than one codon expressing same amnio acid Not overlapping 61 codons specify amino acids 3 nucleiotide sequences specify STOP translation Transfer RNA: tRNA o adaptor o cloverleaf shape o tRNA with attatched grouping peptide attatched to P site on ribosome o tRNA with correct amino acid binds to A-site on ribosome o peptide bound is formed o ribosome moves down mRNA o Sequences enomeDNAKnow amino acid sequence o Association studies: large population of people, which ones have which genes Tissues: Groups of cells of a similar type Types: (on PP) 1) Nervous 2) Muscle 3) Epithelial 4) Connective Epithelial Tissue Location: all free surfaces, glands Functions: 1) Protection 2) Secretion 3) Absorption Characteristics: Free surface Basement membrane -extracellular 3) Little intercellular space 4) Avascular: NO blood vessels Classification: (on PP) -Number of cell layers 1) Pseudostratified: all cell contact basement membrane, but do not reach free surface 2) Shape at free surface -Squamous (flat) -Cuboidal (cube) -Columnar (column) 1) Simple Squamous: (on PP all) thin involved in diffusion and filtration Capillaries and alveoli 2) Stratified Squamous: Thick Protection Skin, mouth, vagina, anus 3) Simple Columnar Large amt. of cytoplasm Secretion, absoption Digestive tract Microvili 4) Simple Cuboidal Salivary glands 5) Pseudostratifed Columnar Respiratory tract Ciliated 6) Transitional Bladder Change shape/flexible (bladder full vs. empty)