September 21 Class Notes
September 21 Class Notes 206
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 206 at Texas A&M University taught by John Bond in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
September 21, 2016 Notes Exam 1: Wednesday, September 28 Topics 1-4 55 points 60 multiple choice questions Bring a Photo I.D., gray scantron, and No. 2 Pencil III. Evolution of American Federalism A. Federalism in Theory: Dual Federalism Clear line between state and national powers Federal and state govts. are sovereign with separate and distinct responsibilities B. Federalism in Practice: Cooperative Federalism Line between national and state responsibilities is blurry Shared responsibilities requires cooperation Early cooperation examples: i. Land grants (Started with 13 colonies-> moved west; manifest destiny) ii. Morrill Act of 1862: every state gets federal land for the purpose of building a college to train students in the agricultural and mechanical arts (Texas A&M) 1. It’s providing support for public education 2. Early example since states are in charge of public education Grants-in-aid i. Categorical grants (for narrowly defined purposes; Head Start, highways) ii. General Revenue sharing iii. Block grants (for general govt. functions, education, law enforcement) Has been around for a while Problems with cooperative federalism: i. Coordination and communication ii. Expensive iii. Threats to state authority 1. Matching funds, strings attached, cross-over sanctions 2. Hire people based on a merit system 3. Stealing state’s rights C. New Federalism Attempt to return power and responsibility to the states i. Sweeping welfare reform 1996 ii. Sup. Ct. rulings supporting states’ rights September 21, 2016 Notes 1. Federal government could not force local law enforcement agencies to perform criminal background checks 2. Citizens could not use a federal law to sue in state courts Problems and controversies: i. Returning power to the states, also returned responsibility and the financial burden ii. Advantage of federal regulation: one set of standards vs. 50 separate standards iii. Unfunded mandates 1. Federal statues requiring states to take on certain responsibilities without covering the cost 2. Examples: a. Handicapped access to public buildings b. No Child Left Behind Topic 4: Civil Rights and Liberties I. General Nature of Civil Rights and Liberties Deal with the basic relationship between individuals and government The government is there serve the interest of the individual A. Characteristics Equality i. All people enjoy equal rights and liberties ii. All people are inherently equal Human dignity Freedom B. Distinction between Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Shield and Sword Civil liberties= shield When govt. is prevented from acting in order to protect or not unreasonably limit freedom Ensure individuals are free to make choices C. Civil Rights= Sword Positive weapon yield by govt. Govt. takes the initiative to protect the helpless Ensures freedom is not arbitrarily denied to certain individuals II. Protection of Civil Rights and Liberties A. Rights and Liberties and Not Absolute Limits on rights and liberties i. Conflict between liberty and social order ii. Conflict between rights September 21, 2016 Notes Requires a delicate balance B. Exercise of Civil Rights and Liberties How to resolve conflicts between rights i. “You can exercise your rights only as long as it does not interfere with someone else’s rights” ii. WRONG Exercise of civil rights is a political problem i. Whatever the majority will tolerate ii. Not the same as “majority rule”
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