Realism Week 4 Notes
Realism Week 4 Notes THEA 11000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janell Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to THEA 11000 at Kent State University taught by James A. Weaver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see THE ART OF THE THEATRE in Theatre and Dance at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
REALISM AND NONREALISM THEATRE WEEK 4 Restoration To completely understand realism, you must: Examine the period that came before it From the midseventeenth and eighteenth centuries in England restoration was very popular. Restoration a type of comedy known for satirizing social pretensions Romanticism The mideighteenth through the nineteenth century was the period of Romanticism Artists created both literary and nonliterary spheres that emphasized feelings and emotions in a way that spectators could sympathize with. Flamboyant expressions were often used to achieve sympathizes. Romanticists often portrayed humans as someone who could “stand” in nature with dignity and beauty. They also predicted the realm of spirituality they could sense from nature Realism: “Three Women in Church” By Wilhelm Leibl Shows that the artist was simply holding a mirror up to society attempting to show it exactly as it was and no better Theatrical style evolved once again in response to the world around it during the nineteenth century Audiences were no longer pleased with idealized settings, stylized costumes, and contrived endings. Audiences wanted to see plays that depicted the social, political, and psychological complexities that they themselves were dealing with Likeliness to Life Every aspect of production had to be reconceived in order to accomplish this in theatre. Scenery depicted ordinary, even messing living environments; characters were not kings and nobles, but husbands, wives, and workers The focus of the plays turned to doubts, struggles, and confusions of everyday life Box Sets & “The Fourth Wall” Early in the realism movement, the proscenium stage was modified to include scenery with walls on three sides Windows, doors, fireplaces, etc. were built into the set just like in a real house In a realistic style of acting, actors behaved as if they were actually speaking to each other under the given imaginary circumstances of the play Actors did not acknowledge the audience Plays were portrayed as if it were the real word, only the “fourth wall” or, the opening of the proscenium has been removed. REALISM AND NONREALISM THEATRE WEEK 4 Realism and Independent Theatres Realism theatre was shocking in its time Some theatres were afraid to product it and some prominent actors were afraid to appear in it This led to the inception of a number of independent theatres throughout Europe committed to producing these challenging new works Henrik Ibsen Considered the Father of Modern Drama He explores the implications of a hypocritical Victorian marriage revealing a history of incent, disease and deceit in his play “Ghosts.” Because of this provocative play and others like it, realism dominated the late nineteenth century Europe Some of his major works, include: A Doll’s House Hedda Gabler Anton Chekhov A Russian playwright Wrote some of the most prominent plays of the realism genre in associate with the Moscow Art Theatre and its director, Konstantin Stanislavsky His plays are known for complex relationships and characters who leave many things unsaid Some of his major works include: Three Sisters Uncle Vanya The Seagull and The Cherry Orchard American Realism Many of the playwrights in the twentieth century in the United States were heavily influenced by European realism, some include: Eugene O’Neill Clifford Odets Arthur Miller Tennessee Williams Lillian Hellman and August Wilson Eugene O’Neill Realism took hold in American theatre with playwright Eugene O’Neill first full length play “Beyond the Horizon.” Born to alcohol and drugaddicted parents He also struggled with alcohol and depression throughout his life Spent time as a sailor until he was stricken with tuberculosis Began to write plays during his recovery, including the ones based on his experience as a sailor Some of his plays were realistic such as: REALISM AND NONREALISM THEATRE WEEK 4 Desire Under the Elms Long Day’s Journey into Night Some plays were more expressionistic like: The Hairy Ape Anna Christie Mourning Becomes Electra The Emperor Jones His first full length play “Beyond the Horizon” premiered on Broadway in 1920. Clifford Odets Raised in the Bronx His parents were immigrants from Eastern Europe He was a member of The Group Theatre in New York beginning in 1931which practiced their interpretation of Stanislavsky’s innovative actor training system referred to by Lee Strasberg as “the Method.” He is known for his early plays: Waiting for Lefty (1935) A play about a cab drivers strike Awake and Sing! (1935) A play about a Jewish family struggling to survive in the 1930’s in the Bronx Both plays were groundbreaking and critically acclaimed Arthur Miller Influenced by Odets work of The Group Theatre His major plays are some of the most produced in the world today His plays include: The Death of a Salesman The Crucible All My Sons and A View from the Bridge Tennessee Williams Dominated American theatre post WWII The Glass Menagerie A Streetcar Named Desire Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Three of his major plays that demonstrate the sensual and evocative nature of his plays Came out as openly gay later in life He created characters who saw themselves as outsiders just like Williams did Lillian Hellman Born in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1905 Her parents moved to New York so she spent half of every year there, and the other half in Louisiana at a boarding house run by her aunt REALISM AND NONREALISM THEATRE WEEK 4 Saw her family and relatives as “eccentric and avaricious,” and later revived them in her plays, “only thinly disguised.” Her most famous play, The Children’s Hour (1934), is about two teachers accused of being lesbians by a privileged student, overwhelmed by the accusation, one teacher kills herself. The play was a huge success on Broadway that ran more than 700 performances, and brought the young playwright instant recognition. Her next play, The Little Foxes (1939), is about three siblings struggling for control over a family business. August Wilson Considered by many to be the greatest American realist since Miller and Williams He created a ten play cycle called The Century Cycle, depicting African American life in each decade of the twentieth century All cycles were set in his hometown, Pittsburgh His major works are: Fences Seven Guitars The Piano Lesson Joe Turner’s Come and Gone Died in 2005 after completing the final play in the cycle: Gem of the Ocean.
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