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CHM114 Week5: Chemical Kinetic notes

by: Deja Gilmore

CHM114 Week5: Chemical Kinetic notes Chem 114

Marketplace > Arizona State University > Chemistry > Chem 114 > CHM114 Week5 Chemical Kinetic notes
Deja Gilmore
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About this Document

These notes include a detailed summary of the instructor led lecture as well as my own personal abstracts from the text.
General Chemistry for Engineers
Stacy Sendler
Class Notes
General Chemistry, kinetics, biochemical engineering, Engineering




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Deja Gilmore on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 114 at Arizona State University taught by Stacy Sendler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry for Engineers in Chemistry at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
September 21, 2016: Chapter 14     Chemical Kinetics:         Lecture Summary  Chemical Kinetics is the study of chemical reactions in respect to their reaction rates. Chemical  Kinetics can provide a lot of insight to medicine and the environment by explaining how long a  specific concentration of medicine will be for a continuous amount of time or how long/effective  medication will be for the given period of time. Chemical mechanism is the circumstances in  which molecules interact (collide) with each other, shedding light on the step by step process in  which the reaction takes place. Rate of change in reactions can be correlated to anything else.  Reactions  Factors that determine the rate of reaction Reaction Rates  ­Temperature Reaction rate= concentration/time  ­Concentration (solution/gases) ­M/s  ­Surface Area (solids) ­Atm/s  ­Physical state ­mM/hour  ­Presence of a catalyst ­bar/min    Predicting Reaction Rates: Rate= k [A]^x[B]^v  The rate constant is constant at ONE temperature, if the temperature is changed so is the  rate.  Working Level­ a steady concentration that is effective for the body and its metabolism.    14.1 Factors that affect reaction rate  1. Physical State of the Reactants: The more reactants collide, the more they react. Most  reactions are homogenous, involving all gases or all liquids. Heterogeneous reactions that  involve solids, are typically faster if the surface area of the solid is larger.   Ex ­ medicine in the form of a powder will react faster in stomach acid than  medicine in the form of salt.  2. Reactant Concentration: Chemical reactions occur faster when the concentration of one  or more of the reactants increases.   Ex­ Wool will burn slower in air than in 100% pure oxygen  3. Reactant Temperature: The rate of reactions will increase when temperature is increased;  molecules collide more frequently when energy (temperature) is higher.  Ex­ milk spoils a lot quicker when it isn’t properly stored at a reliable temperature  4. Presence of a Catalyst: Catalysts are agents that increase reaction rates without  themselves being used up.   14.2 Reaction Rates  The speed of an event is defined as the change that occurs in a given time interval, meaning  speed and time correlate. A good way to think of this concept is to think about how the speed of  a car is generally expressed as the change in the car’s distance over a certain time interval.    Calculating average rate of reaction    Change in Concentration    Average Rate=        Change in time      What is the difference between average and instantaneous rate? ​In chemical reactions the  rate at which the reaction is occurring/reactants are disappearing depends on the reaction rate  factors and is constantly changing depending on the time. Average rate is determined over a  larger period of time while instantaneous rate is the determined rate of time for a particular time  period.      14.3 Reaction rate and Concentration Laws  ​ A simple ​rate law expresses how the rate depends on the concentration. Typically the rate is  going to be proportional to the concentration of the reactant.     How do reaction rate, rate law and rate constant differ? ​Reaction rate is literally just the  sp​eed in which a chemical reaction occurs, rate law is the e ​ quation that links the reaction rate  (speed) with the concentration of the reactants (typically formatted as exponents), rate constant is  the coefficient in a proportional equation that expresses the rate of a chemical reaction and the  concentration of a reactant.   


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