CMST 233- Textbook Notes Chapter 5
CMST 233- Textbook Notes Chapter 5 Cmst 233
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ary Spilkin on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Cmst 233 at California State University Chico taught by Michelle Givertz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
CMST 233- Chapter 5 Language The Nature of Language *Language: a structured system of symbols (words) used for communicating meaning Written messages are also verbal Language is symbolic, a word simply represents something Language is arbitrary, words symbolize the particular thing we do *Onomatopoeia: a word formed by imitating the sound associated with its meaning Phonological Rules: deal with correct pronunciation of a word Syntactic rules: govern the way we put together words and phrases to create well-formed sentences Semantic rules: govern the meanings of individual words Pragmatic rules: address how we use social and cultural info to determine the meaning of statements *Denotative meaning: a word’s literal meaning or dictionary definition *Connotative meaning: a word’s implied or secondary meaning, in addition to its literal meaning Semantic Triangle: includes symbol (word being communicated), referent (denotative meaning), and reference (connotative meaning) *Loaded language: terms that carry strongly positive or strongly negative connotations Obamacare vs. Affordable Care Act *Ambiguous language: language having more than one possible meaning “Right” meaning correct or turn right Ladder of Abstraction: the top is more concrete terms like “my brother Time” and the bottom is more abstract like “living being” *Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: the idea that language influences the ways that members of a culture see and think about the world Two Principles: Linguistic Determinism: suggests that the structure of language determines how we think Linguistic Relativity: suggests that because language determines our perceptions of reality, people who speak different languages will see the world differently Appreciating the Power of Words A person’s name suggests info about the person’s demographic characteristics, disposition and sense of self Persuasion: the process of moving people to think or act in a certain way *Ethos: a speaker’s respectability, trustworthiness, and moral character Appeals to level of knowledge and expertise *Pathos: listeners’ emotions People’s interpersonal emotional appeals often focus on generating negative emotions *Logos: listeners’ ability to reason *Reason: make judgements about the world based on evidence rather than emotion or intuition *Credibility: the extent to which others find someone’s words and actions trustworthy Cliches: phrases that were novel at one time but have lost their effect because of overuse Dialects: variations on a language that are shared by people of a certain region or social class Equivocation: strategically vague language that disguises the speaker’s true intentions Weasel words: terms and phrases that are intended to mislead listeners by implying something that they don’t actually say Allness statements: declaration implying that a claim is true without exception Choosing credible language is important to be a trustworthy person Language expresses affection and intimacy as well as comfort and healing Language can also be used to comfort ourselves- keeping a diary can help during traumatic events The Use and Abuse of Language Jokes can be funny, some can be offensive *Euphemism: a vague, mild expression that symbolizes something more blunt or harsh Instead of saying a woman is pregnant, she might say she is “expecting” Doublespeak: using euphemisms to distort meaning or to make offensive or upsetting news seem more acceptable *Slang: informal, unconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular group Slang can serve an important social function by helping people distinguish between those who do and don’t belong to their social networks *Defamation: language that harms a person’s reputation or image *Libel: a defamatory statement made in print or in some other fixed medium *Slander: a defamatory statement made aloud *Profanity: a form of language considered vulgar, rude or obscene in the context in which it is used *Hate speech: a form of profanity meant to degrade, intimidate, or dehumanize groups of people Creating a Positive Communication Climate *Communication climate: the emotional tone of a relationship Reflects how you feel about the relationships you’re in *Confirming messages: behaviors that indicate how much we value another person *Disconfirming messages: behaviors that imply a lack of regard for another person From most to least disconfirming: Impervious Response: ignoring people altogether making people feel neglected and unimportant Verbal abuse: using words to hurt people emotionally and psychologically Generalized complaining: offering specific complaints often helps by focusing the conversation on particular problems Irrelevant response: replying to someone’s message with a completely unrelated statement Impersonal response: reply to someone’s words with a cliché that conveys no real empathy *Defensiveness: excessive concern with guarding oneself against the threat of criticism *Supportiveness: a person’s feeling of assurance that others care about and will protect him or her Six types of messages that promote defensiveness in interpersonal comm. and six contrasting types of messages that promote supportiveness -Evaluation vs. description -Control vs. problem orientation -Strategy vs. spontaneity -Neutrality vs. empathy -Superiority vs. equality -Certainty vs. provisionalism *Non-evaluative feedback: a reply that withholds assessment of what the speaker has said or done Techniques of non-evaluative feedback you could use: Probe Paraphrase Offer support *Evaluative feedback: a reply that offers an assessment of what the speaker has said or done Provide praise or criticize constructively *I-statement: a statement that claims ownership of one’s thoughts or feelings “I’m having a hard time understanding you” *You-statement: a statement that shifts responsibility for one’s own thoughts or feelings to the listener “You’re not being clear” Tips to help contribute to a positive climate in your own communication: Don’t expect feedback to be immediate Be careful not to use mediated communication as a shield Get permission before sharing others’ photos Pay attention to auto-correct Reflect instead of reacting