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Unit 7 Notes

by: Alicia Davis

Unit 7 Notes GEO 2100 - 01

Alicia Davis

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These notes cover all of Unit 7
Physical Geography
Arliss S. Perry
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Davis on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 2100 - 01 at Wright State University taught by Arliss S. Perry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Unit 7 Notes Temperature and Temperature Scales • What is temperature? • Thermometers • Scales: Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin Kelvins °C °F Water boils 373 100 212 Water freezes 273 0 32 Absolute zero 0 -273 -460 - A Kelvin is the same as degrees Celsius The Vertical Distribution of Temperature • Environmental Lapse Rate- Temperature profile determined by local influences • Adiabatic Lapse Rates -Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR)-10 degrees Celsius per 1000 meters of atmosphere - Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate-warmer air is lighter and rises separate from surroundings. Air cools after it saturates. 4-9 degrees Celsius per 1000 meters of atmosphere (SALR) • Stability Inversion- temperature increases with • stable height inversions (ground, subsidence) -unstable Compression causes heating related -conditionally stable to sinking air • Stability and Air Pollution Rising air- critical component to thunderstorms Environmental Lapse Rate Conditions Environmental lapse rate conditions for a mass of stationary air (shown in blue) that surrounds an individual parcel of air (shown in white) rising through it. When the ELR is less than the DALR, an air parcel is colder and denser than surrounding air and therefore stable (A). When the ELR is greater than the DALR, an air parcel is warmer and less dense than surrounding air and therefore unstable (B). ELR > DALR – unstable-free convection ELR < DALR – stable ELR = DALR- neutral DALR > ELR > SALR – unstable Conditional instability- severe weather Stability in the Atmosphere In an unstable atmosphere, numerous thunderstorms billow up, as viewed over southern Florida looking south. Colder air is heavier so it sinks No matter how high you force air to rise, as soon as it stops, it sinks back to the ground as the air starts to rise, the temperature rises. Temperature Inversion Effect of a temperature inversion on the vertical dispersal of atmospheric pollutants. (A) Normal dispersal; (B) smog formation. -Temperature increases with height -Low level surface inversion- Earth’s surface heats the atmosphere -Upper level inversion- heat transfer, a warmer upper level wind, air sinking -ELR is negative in an inversion Temperature Inversion and Pollution Downtown Los Angeles is a leading city of air pollution due to poor vertical and horizontal mixing. Throughout the summer, there is a restrictive temperature inversion over the region. Adopting the strictest air pollution controls in the world, the air quality has improved remarkably. Below, air circulation within an urban dust dome. -Temperature range- The difference between hottest and coldest Horizontal Distribution of Temperature -Temporal cycles -Average temperature- warmest + coldest/2 -Daily cycle -Annual cycle -Coldest temperature of the day is before sunrise -Heating of land vs. water -Warmest temperature of the day is the middle of the -maritime effect afternoon -continental effect, continentality -Global temperature variations -Water has specific heat- takes more heat to raise -seasonal variations temperature than soil -isotherms and temperature gradients Marine influence shows San Francisco (38 N) milder than continental o Omaha (41 N) -Effect that causes temperature range to be lowered -Continentality- ability of a large landmass to increase temperature at a location Urban Heat Island -As you move from rural to urban, the temperature rises 4-8 degrees. -Urban Heat Island effect- the result of heat held by rock surfaces -isotherms are layered by latitude Air Temperature and the Human Body -Wind chill -Correlates cold and wind speed -Heat index -Correlates heat and humidity Wind Chill Table Allows you to measure temperature and wind speed and determine what temperature your actually feeling.


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