Weeks 1-3 Notes Including Richter
Weeks 1-3 Notes Including Richter HIST 114-001
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Siegesmund on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 114-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Dr. Ott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see American History Up Unitl 1877 in American History at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) A New World Beringia Land bridge created by the frozen tundra of the ice age People migrated across Beringia into what is now North America In 12,000 BCE, the bridge melts due to the ice age ending and the Bering Strait between Alaska and Asia forms The people who migrated across Beringia travel south and reach what is now South America by 9,000 BCE. 7,000 BCE people begin to settle (Neolithic revolution – when people shifted from hunting and gathering to settling down, major turning point in history.) Settled in one spot, so there was agriculture Developed fire Diverse societies (roads, settlements, trade, bridges) This is around the same time of the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. (Important because two separate cultures both settled and began developing agriculture and societies at the same time.) Cahokia Largest city in America of about 20,000, across river by St. Louis, larger than many of the European cities at this time Some structures were bigger than the pyramids (not by height but by square footage) 22 million cubic feet of dirt used in construction Burial mounds revealed a social hierarchy There were artifacts found such as beads/wampum (which showed movement of resources), quartz, and plasma for astronomical orientation (shows spirituality is connected to life) Warfare where enemies would be enslaved to replace those who were lost in the fighting. Proof of visual communication (pots, drawings, quilts) The families were matrilineal, or the women’s family. o Women had more power because they were always home farming Developed successful “Three Sisters” agriculture Corn (1 cob yields 250 seeds), beans (helped corn grow), and squash (deterrent to weeds) *Mounds like these were all up and down the Mississippi River because it was warm and the land was perfect for agriculture. Many people settled along the river.)* Puebloan Cities (Same time as Cahokia) Chaco Canyon (15,000) Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), 250,000 Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) o Canals, bridges, buildings o 5 Million Aztec o Wars sparked over the practice of blood sacrifices o Machu Picchu Incans, 12 million Roads and trade networks across S. America All these early settlements develop their own culture and are all very diverse. When Europeans arrive, they do not perceive them this way. Europeans Portuguese want to go to Asia (development of caravel made trips easier: long boat with accurate travel long-distance) o Due to religious tensions, wanted to develop trade with people other than Muslims. o Columbus wants to find a way by going West. Milan bankers and Spain funds his trip 33 Days from Canary Islands to Bahamas Brings bad luck, loses boat, disease (50-1,000), (80 Million Native American will die from diseases) o NEW PLACE!! = investments and travel Perception of Europeans (wanted to change Native Americans’ perceptions) o N.A. belief system was backwards (they didn’t believe in Christianity) o N.A. gender norms “backwards “ Women were in charge Men moved in with wife Women could marry and divorce as much as they wanted Women owned house, tools, etc. o Land ownership N.A. had no sense of possession, shared land, common resource In Europe, every man had his own land o Viewed Native Americans as a garden, they could take what they want o Native Americans’ shamans and healers were witches, they were unchristian and “devils” worshipping “false gods” Great Chain of Being o Europeans believed in this chain of power o God > Kings > people > animals, etc. o They couldn’t change their position because God gave it to them o Native Americans had a chain similar to this, but it wasn’t as set or as important as the Europeans’ chain No people ever went hungry like the beggars and homeless in Europe Conquistadors o Wanted to find gold o Wanted to conquer people They had better technology (guns) Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) They wanted to destroy local power to overtake the tribes o They mixed with Native people Sistemas de Castas was 16 different levels at which the Spanish and Natives mixed o Spain enslaved Native Americans They would mine gold/silver Farming The Black Legend Bartoloméde la Casas o Wrote letter to ask to stop enslaving and destroying Native Americans o Wrote that Christianity is not being served in this way o New Laws enacted in 1542 outlawing the harm of Native Americans New France o Samuel de Champlain founds al in 1608 o Only 19,000 French by 1700 o Trying to trade not conquer Fur Trading Beginnings of English America (1607- 1660) Henry VIII (1509 - 1547) th King of England in 16 century Breaks with Catholic Church because they wouldn’t allow him to keep getting annulled Starts his own church (Church of England) which is Protestant This creates a lot of tension during his reign Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) Queen of England who focuses on repair of the kingdom Mercantilism – commercialism/trade to generate wealth Privateering the new world (pay pirates to go after enemies) Anglican Church o Restores the church and executes over 100 Catholic priests Richard Hakluyt writes “Discourse on Western Planting” Listed 23 reasons why Elizabeth I should support the establishment of colonies in America We need to become involved to save N.A. from Spain Making products gives money Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) Fantastic social safety valve Enclosure Movement o Wealthy bought land from small farmers to make a big profit Master less Men o Feudal system died so men were in charge of themselves, became homeless, could own their own land Indentured Servants (contracted to work for a certain amount of time in return for the passage to the new world) o Owning their own land meant freedom and money o ¾ of people in the new world were indentured servants The Virginia Company founds Jamestown (1607) Grants charters to others 105 men and boys, no women Their goal was to find gold Jamestown was built on swamp and by 10,000 Powhatan Indians o Swamps led to the spread of Malaria and Dysentery o Relationships with the Powhatan is easy because the English are weak They trade The Starving Time (1609-1610) Winter comes among the 400 settlers and they begin to loose supplies (starts because some stole from N.A. so they killed the English’s cattle) Begin boiling leather to eat and digging up graves to eat the bodies Only 60 settlers survive In an attempt to fix the relationship, Native Americans kidnap John Smith Tobacco outbreak in 1618 (John Rolfe stole seeds) Expands due to Headright System (1618) o Gives 50 acres if you come to America and 50 more per person you bring Within 40 years, millions of pounds of tobacco House of Burgesses created (1618) o Elected government o Makes decision for the colony o Can only vote if you own your own land Uprising of 1622 No common ground is held with N.A. and Europeans so they want to kick N.A. out. Powhatan killed Kills ¼ at Jamestown (300) in one day Jamestown becomes a royal colony in result (they make up the government as they go) Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) Maryland is given to Cecilius Calvert in 1632 Was a feudal lord Tolerant home to either Catholics or Protestants Puritans, Pilgrims, and Plymouth Puritans belief that the Church of England is too much like the Catholic Church o Form own branch of Christianity o Wanted it to be purer and more like the Bible o Teachings of Calvin Born already chosen to go to Heaven Will see who is chosen through acts of goodness Pilgrims are the first Puritans in MA in 1620 o No towns because most of the Native Americans have died from disease o Land is already managed and plowed because N.A. died suddenly and vastly o Squanto takes care of them Squanto was kidnapped from MA, taken to England to learn English and now brought back to home to help Massachusetts Bay Company 1629 (found Massachusetts Bay Colony) Sparks the Great Migration o Merchants from London o Puritan families o 91,000 by 1671 Localized government o Land granted to colonists by the government Merchant economy (money made off of trade) Roger Williams founds Rhode Island Gets into a conflict over the meaning of being a Puritan o Is banished and founds Rhode Island o Williams Views Individuals should be able to practice any religion they want They can find salvation how they want The state and the church are separate o The state is tolerant of religion, anyone can vote, and there are much better relationships with the Native Americans Pequot War in 1637 N.A. groups are smaller by this time due to the conquering and the disease An English fur trader is killed by a Pequot o English are mad Surround the village and burn it to the ground Kill 500 Continue to find more to kill or enslave Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) Signs a treaty that states that Pequots are “out of the history book” English views are still harsh They are worried about N.A. culture and influence Europeans must be God’s divine people o Must inherit the land o Expansion booms N.A. and Europeans must be separate The English Civil War “Rights of Englishmen” o English believe these rights are being violated o Derived from the Magna Carta (1215) Basic rights of any Englishman including liberty, property, legality, etc. o As feudalism fades, more people have freedom and ownership Oliver Cromwell executes the king and takes over o Increases tyranny in Ireland o Expanded colonial power o Passes the Navigation Acts Creating Anglo-America (1660-1750) Mercantilist Government Government should regulate the economy to benefit from commerce Granted monopolies o Royal African Company can trade with Western Africa Trade should benefit England more than the colonies o Colonies produce the raw good and England produces the material goods Navigation Acts (Oliver Cromwell) Certain goods that had to be sold to England first Goods sent to colonies had to be sent on English ships Dutch founded New Netherland Amsterdam becomes New York (massive port) (1664) o Dutch colonists become English o Five families own all the land in New York o Sir Edmund Andros is governor First governor to create an alliance with the Iroquois Covenant Chain o Iroquois is “on top” of all Native Americans, leader of all o They support English in all wars Puritans force Andros to make an assembly o Charter of Liberties Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) Male property owners may vote Religious tolerance Colonial Constitution Carolinas 1663 Eight families own all of the Carolinas Barbados people come to the Carolinas Act as a buffer between Spanish Florida and the colonists Government arm the Native Americans with guns to help resist Spain o Afterwards, they are enslaved Very generous headright system (150 acres per head) Rice Plantation Economy Pennsylvania (William Penn) Sanctuary for religious persecution Quaker principles/ “Society of Friends” Rejects the idea of elect o Therefore, everyone can go to Heaven, not just the “chosen” Purchases from Native Americans No militia until 1740 o Therefore, very peaceful Pacifists No official church o Rules are of moral virtue Cheap land o “Best poor man’s country” o Problem for richer places in different colonies needing work Helps lead to slavery Slavery There is a demand for labor Africans cannot claim to be English (skin color) Immune to the diseases Take them to the U.S. so they cannot run They are “alien” from norms, so treated differently o Skin Color o Religion However, slavery present in other countries before o Trace back to Slavic people (Slavic = Slaves) West Indies and sugar o No one wants to farm sugar because it is an intensive physical job Slaves will farm because they have no choice Biggest commodity in the Western world Slavery rises in Barbados First slaves in Virginia Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) o Given a few rights Can represent themselves in court Can own other slaves if they get free Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 Virginia, Nathaniel Bacon Protest Governor William Berkeley o Offers best land first to insiders o Maintains peace and trade with N.A. o Feels cheated out of land (indentured servants will have no land of their own even though their bosses get land for them coming over) Indentured servants army o Massacre Native Americans o Burn Jamestown British warships arrive o Bacon is dead from disease o 23 hanged Adjustments o Opens up land (due to morbid killing of N.A.) o Raises labor issues for farming again THE SHIFT TOWARDS SLAVERY King Phillip’s War N.A. rise against colonists who are pressuring them for land o Kill 1,000 colonists, but 3,000 N.A. are dead o Push them to the coast o Covenant Chain helps British fight o Cleans out Native Americans Change in how colonies organized James II combines colonies into the Domain of New England (1686-1688) o No government/assembly, just one governor (Andros) o Pushes religion onto the N.A. o James II is Catholic Glorious Revolution 1688 o William of Orange forcefully takes the crown Brother-in-law to king The government wants a protestant in charge, so they support this move Bill of Rights created Puts Andros in jail and declares the colonies once again separate World of Wonder Few scientific explanation for what happens in the world o It is believed that spiritual forces control o Salem Witch Trials (1691-92) Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) If it isn’t God or Satan, then there must be witches 14 women, 5 men hanged, and 1 man is pressed to death Afterwards, the accused are released and the court is no longer Colonial Growth N.A. are pushed West More diverse settlements English discourage the movement because they want to stabilize Send over 50,000 convicts to work as indentured servants There is tolerance of religion Walking Purchase in 1737 o Can have as much land as you can cover while walking for 36 hours straight Consumer Revolution o Goods coming from England to America, elites following trends of the British in England Back country growth o 9 out of 10 are farmers Atlantic World People are buying more furnished goods (due to growth of the colonies) Can create their own substantial society Goods are traded all over the Atlantic o Not just goods, but also ideas. Port cities become important o People move to the cities o They can buy more goods and sell o Smuggling (humans) Social Classes (Virginia) Cousinocracy is where all the power was so close in family that they were able to keep the power and control cities Anglicization is the term describing when the elites did not think of themselves as citizens of America, but as English. They followed trends from England instead of creating their own in the colonies. o British sense of culture South Carolina Aristocracy o Exceeds wealthiest tobacco regions by four times Exceeds merchants by eight times o Wealthiest o Slavery very early on Most are in Middle Ranks o Land ownership = freedom o Want land for their children Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) o Household economy – father has priority and control over family, must protect the farm o Men have all authority o Women don’t get much Give children (more children) Either die or live Slavery, Freedom, and the Struggle for Empire Atlantic Triangle Trade Manufactured good from England to colonies and Africa, Africans to colonies and South America/West Indies to produce goods Expansion of banks, insurance created (to insure slave cargos), explosion of trade, slavery finances the industrial revolution Bristol British Slave Ships (Brookes) o Middle Passage was from Africa to the colonies o 1 in 5 died in Middle Passage o Only 5% went to colonies, the rest to S. America and W. Indies o 1/5 of people in colonies in 1700s are slaves o Could hold 292 slaves packed in very tightly, could be sold for 20 times the cost of buying o Olaudah Equinao An 11-year- old who was kidnapped and sold into slavery Traveled through Middle Passage and wrote book detailing his trip and life afterwards First account of slavery published and still the best account of the Middle Passage Tobacco Plantations Chesapeake region Indentured servants wanted their own land, so slaves were needed Developed their own culture because all different Africans were thrown together in slavery The masters prided themselves on being great British subjects The slavery here was unique because many slaves held other positions such as cooking, sewing, shoe making, spinning, etc. Tobacco doesn’t benefit from large scale investment o Small plantations were created There was close proximity between white masters and slaves Sometimes picked up English Sometimes caught up in cultural movements o Larger plantations rose to the top (socially) Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) o Codes were enacted Freed slaves were totally removed from the colony That way they don’t give impression of freedom to the other slaves Rice Plantations Carolinas Do benefit from large-scale plantations Draining swamps, irrigation o Malaria Not many whites wanted to stick around Africans are mostly immune Slaves become taskmasters for the whites o At one point there is 76 white males : 1,000 African slaves Masters would become rich Culture is different because there is little contact with white masters o Gullah forms African languages mingled with spiritual beliefs to form Gullah Whites cannot understand By 1770, 100,000 slaves were in the Carolinas, more than ½ the population Georgia was founded in 1733 o James Oglethorpe wanted to abolish slavery and make a haven for the worthy poor Liquor and slaves were originally banished Settlers couldn’t vote When they finally received representation, they voted in favor of liquor and slavery, so both were again legalized Non-Plantation Society New York has the largest population of slaves at 1 out of 5 people o They were there because New York’s ports directly tied into the slave trade o There wasn’t much proximity between those enslaved Worked more household jobs Resistance – Runaway and Rebellion Africans believed to have no sense of liberty, so enslaving them wasn’t a problem Many would run away from masters and attempt to set up a new life Rebellion o Stono Rebellion Occurs on a Rice Plantation where there is no white people 100 slaves from the Congo (and they build in numbers as they go) Storm a store for guns They are looking for freedom and chanting “Liberty” They head towards Florida Soon they have a skirmish with the British Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) Although only 24 whites died during the travel of the slaves, 200 slaves were killed An Empire of Freedom No society is more free than the British No one is above the law (including the monarch and the Pope) London is a political and economic capital Often goes to war with Spain o After winning, British would come together and create strong patriotism Everyone has the same rights, above the abuse from monarchs and the pope Republican Liberty If you held an appointed office, you are prone to corruption because you are representing the person who appointed you Would rather vote for own interests Only the wealthy should be appointed because of their wealth which makes them less prone to temptation Liberalism – John Locke Government is not a patriarchy, all men engage as equals Men enter into a social contract to benefit the rule of law Natural rights can never be taken from them o Life, liberty, property Shouldn’t interfere with family, religion Colonial Government and Political Culture Widespread suffrage, only 50-80% of people could vote (male property owners) o Different from England Voting for wealthy to take office because they think they are more fit o People in power stay in power o Needed 500 acres, 10 slaves, and 1,000 pounds to hold office Colonial Government o Assemblies in states were left alone o Only ones who would tax and handle financial issues o Governor, however, were appointed by the crown Public Sphere Public life where groups of people would have conversations o Debated society and philosophical ideas o Discussed pressing issues o Everyone thinks they are capable of talking about religion and government Colonial press publishes issues, books o Circulating libraries made it easy for all people to get books o Literacy and reading were important Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) There was NO right to freedom of speech Trial of John Zenger Criticizes NY government in weekly journal o Arrested and tried for slander o Defense urged jury to judge the government, the prosecution urged the jury to decided whether or not Zenger published it o Found not guilty If it is true, it can be written about o Freedom of expression American Enlightenment – rising importance of scientific meaning Response to religious warfare Ben Franklin o Cuts out and rearranges the Bible to make sense intellectually Arminian ism – science alone should establish religion Deism – God withdrew after creation and then science took over Great Awakening Religious revival after being afraid of the Enlightenment Religion of individuals versus the religion of a minister Salvation vs. damnation o Individuals can save themselves Sense of individual awareness Empires in the 18 Century English rose through successful wars o Center banking and trade, more money o Profits through trade and not plunder o Raises debt, taxes, and tension Spain has little concentrated power of people o They are centered around missions French is pushing West and gaining land quickly o They have good relationships with N.A. Fur trading o Challenges British Westward Expansion Center is the N.A. groups (Middle Ground) o Best survival is to balance power with politics between each empire because no group is powerful enough to take them alone. (Would side with enemy of whoever challenged them) o Starts to fall apart when countries begin to finance to go to war (Spain helps) In 1754, Virginia offers land grant to Ohio o Pennsylvania thought the land was theirs o French thought it was theirs, so they make forts Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) Washington goes to the French to ask them to leave They refuse, so he builds forts and battles the French Washington loses, triggering the Seven Years War Seven Years War More interest in gaining the Middle Ground Most NA ally with the French o British are pushed back in first 2 years o Indians are doing most of the fighting o British forces are financed more and the Navy is built up There is an increase in the national debt Finances allies to hold off French in France while hitting them hard in the colony o In 1760, the French surrender leaving the N.A. to fight alone Pontiac’s Rebellion They knew that whites and Indians are incompatible They needed to fight Falls apart when they realize that the French are not coming back There is no accommodation made with the N.A. o 1763 Peace of Paris Land is given to Spain and England o Proclamation line of 1763 Can’t go west of line because they cannot finance anymore wars Paxton Boys o Knew the two groups are incompatible o Slaughter peaceful local N.A. tribes The tribes were in an alliance, but the Paxton Boys suspected that the tribe was also providing weapons to enemy tribes Colonial Unity Happened after seven years war o Needed to come together and fight or they would die alone Proved to be Englishmen Consequences: o The crown will make them pay for the war o Sparks the American Revolution Richter Notes Constructing history is an “imaginative creation” because most of the time it is constructed off of stories. These stories may or not be true because they are only passed down through generations. Therefore, it can be “imaginative.” Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) The first Americans may have thought of de Soto as an opportunity to take out enemy tribes. De Soto was set on conquering as many tribes as he could. Whichever Native American tribe aligned with him could help take out their own enemies. Cartier, on the other hand, came to trade. The Native Americans may have seen this as an opportunity to change their world. They could also use it as a way to acquire technology. Europeans brought with them new livestock and crops. This gave Native Americans new ways of getting food rather than relying on hunting. Europeans also brought technology such as guns that made it easier for them to damage their enemies at war. The Europeans could fight the Native Americans, but their diseases killed off more than warfare did. Disease could have been considered their warfare. The story of Pocahontas is one of romance. However, Richter tells us that the real story isn’t really a story at all. Pocahontas was just one of twenty daughters who might actually have been a part of a plot to save John Smith. Then, like many other Native Americans, she was caught up in relations between British and the tribes. The traditional stories of Metacom’s War was that his tribe rallied against the British and attacked, but lost. Richter gives evidence for why Metacom did this. For example, trade was diminishing. This led to British wanting more land. Then, the British began pushing onto Metacom’s land. Then, he was forced into signing an agreement stating that he belonged to their government. Metacom was occasionally questioned and he said that he felt that European power had gone too far in governing his people. He began war and did well until winter hit them hard. After being finally attacked by Mohawks, the war was over. Richter paints an intensive story of facts rather than a story passed down. Richter wants to show the intent behind Monequassum’s confession, so he dissects it. He first describes it as not having much of an Indian voice. This shows that Native Americans were adapting to European ways. Monequassum adapts to their religion and professes his sins so he can be accepted and perhaps not killed. In the end, he believes that such a proclamation is due to the fact that Europeans find natives’ lives very sinful and Mosequassum wants to confess to show that he can be Christian. Native Americans became more involved with Europeans through taking their religion. Also, the Covenant Chain made Iroquois allies with Great Britain. They came to an end when tension built between colonists and Great Britain. During the Consumer Revolution, Indians would supply fur for trading. However, they would receive cheap and lightweight products in return. This changed over time when fur didn’t become such a commodity in England. Both Pontiac’s War and the Paxton Boys were driven by the idea that Native Americans and Europeans are incompatible. Therefore, both attempted to take out the other. Key Terms N.A. = Native American(s) Important Key Information (VERY Important) British proclamations and treaties regarding Native Americans were ignored in the American Revolution. They were not considered in the signing of new treaties after the war, either. Up to 1812 following the American Revolution, Native Americans were not liked or respected by the government. Andrew Jackson began processes to remove all the Native Americans. William Apess’ Eulogy at the end is a very good way to end the book. This is mostly because it is a first-hand account of the feelings and emotions of Native Americans when this whole book until this point had been at a point-of-view of a person not from that time. Although he is only looking back at the events as well, his take on them is much more reliable than the author’s. This also allows the readers to hear about Apess’ struggles as being a Native American at that time. It essentially sums up all the feelings that the Native Americans have been having along with facts about Apess’ life that give the reader an insight to that time period.
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