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First Exam Material

by: Alissa Foreman

First Exam Material MKTG 367

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Alissa Foreman
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About this Document

This goes over Consumer Motivation, Exposure and Comprehension, Memory and Knowledge part I, II, III
Consumer Behavior
Lifeng Yang
Class Notes
Marketing, Memory&Knowledge, ConsumerBehavior




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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alissa Foreman on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKTG 367 at University of Mississippi taught by Lifeng Yang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
 Consumer motivation o Needs, wants, drives, and desires of individual that lead them toward the purchase of products or ideas. o Motivations may be physiologically, psychologically or environmentally driven  Motivation to find the “best deal” o Price, quality, quantity o Ability to help solve a problem o Sustainability/ Durability of the products  Motivation to reduce effort to deal w/ irrelevant works- “cognitive miser mindset”  Motivation: An inner state of arousal that creates energy needed to achieve a goal o What move people o Can lead to high effort behavior that is consistent w/ goals o High effort info processing and attention o The lighthouse for motivated reasoning  Guides the amount of effort spent to process the information  More v. less  Guides the duration of interest in processing the info  Long v. short  Guiding the direction of info process  Biased v. unbiased  Felt Involvement: self-reported arousal or interest in offering, activity, or decision o Enduring involvement: long term interest o Situational involvement: temporary interest o Cognitive involvement: interest in thinking and learning o Affective involvement: interest in expending emotional energy and evoking deep feelings  Channeling your emotions shut down what your brain thinks and follow your heart o Response involvement: interest in certain decisions and behavior  Don’t like feeling, but engage in decisions happily  What affects motivation o Personal relevance  Has direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications for lives  Consistency w/ self-concept  Our mental view of who we are o Value relevance  Abstract, enduring beliefs about what’s right, important, and good  More likely to listen to people who have the same values o Need relevance  Needs: internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal or desired state  Types of Needs o Social v. nonsocial  Social: needs that are externally directed and relate to other individuals  Nonsocial needs: achievement is not based on other people o Functional v. symbolic v. hedonic needs  Functional: need that motivates the search for offerings that solve consumption-related problems  Symbolic: need that relates to how we perceive ourselves and how we want other people perceive us  Ex; t-shirts show who we are, what we relate to, who we support  Hedonic: Need that relates to sensory pleasure o See slide 12  Characteristics of needs o Needs are dynamic; never satisfied o Exist in hierarchy; priority can be individually defined o Can be internally and externally aroused o Can conflict  Approach-Avoidance  Approach-Approach  Avoidance-Avoidance  2 negative outcomes; have to choose one or the other o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs  Problematic b/c individuals needs differ  Needs v. Goals o Needs; never fully satisfied o Goals; outcomes that we would like to achieve  Goals o Concrete or abstract o Promotion focused or prevention focused o Appraisal theory  Theory of emotion that proposes that emotion are based on an individuals’ assessment of a situation or outcome and its relevance to his or her goals  Whether consumer fees good or bad about something depends on how the appraise a situation o Perceived risk  Lack of info  Newness  High Prices o Types of Perceived risk  Performance risk: Possibility that the offering will perform less than expected  Financial: extent to which buying, using, or disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to create financial harm  Physical: the Extent to which buying using or disposing of an offering is perceived of disposing  Social: have the potential to do harm to one’s social standing  Psychological: harm one’s sense of self and thus create negative emotions  Time risk: perceived to have the potential to lead to loss of time  Consumer ability o Financial  Able to financially accept product o Cognitive  Able to fully understand the benefits o Emotional o Physical o Social and cultural o Education and age  Consumer Opportunity o Time  Consumer may not have been ready for product o Distraction o Amount/complexity/repetition and control of info  Enhancing info processing o Repeat the communications o Simplify  People want to put little effort into cognition o Reduce distractions o Reduce purchasing, using, and learning time o Provide info  Ability to understand benefits From Exposure to Comprehension  Pd. Advertising reduced in ’09 b/c of financial crisis  o % of return on ads is hard to capture  Exposure o Process by which the consumer comes into contact w/ a stimulus  Multiple ways to come into contact  o Marketing Stimuli: Info about offerings communicated either by the marketer  (ads) or non­marketing source (word of mouth)  Avg. American see 600 ads/ day o Factors influencing exposure  Position of an ad w/in a medium  Position of an ad (magazine, TV commercials, TV shows)  Product distribution (how available it is)  Shelf Placement (eye level v. higher/ lower) o Consumers are most likely to pick products @ eye level   Selective Exposure: Consumers can selectively control what marketing  stimuli they view (ex: paying for ad free music)  Zipping: fast­forwarding thru the commercial on VCR or DVR  Zapping: use of remote control to switch channels during  commercial break o “Do not call” list surpasses 62mil. The first year o Measuring exposure  Time: how much time the commercial lasts  Money  Attention o Paying attention: Process which we allocate part of our mental activity to a  stimulus  Attention: How much mental activity a consumer devotes to a stimulus o Characteristics of attention  Limited  When there are too many stimuli, it can cause limited attention   Selective  Focus on different things   How much focus is spent on certain things  Dividable  Can divert attention to multiple things o How to attract consumer attention  Make stimuli personally relevant   Appeal to personal needs, values, emotions, or goals  Show source similar to the target audience   Use drama o Movie placing  Ask rhetorical questions  Make stimuli pleasant  Use attractive models  Music  Humor  Make stimuli surprising  Novelty   Unexpectedness  Use a puzzle o How to attract consumers’ attention  Make stimuli easy to process  Make them: o Prominent: intensity of stimuli that causes them to stand  out relative to the environment o Concrete: How easy a stimulus is capable of being  imagined   Easier to process when there are a lot of details  o Contrasting  Want people to notice one color, put behind color to make it stand out  Reduce the amount of competing info o No distractions to help advertise  Consumers do not always see everything you want them to see  Habituation: Process by which a stimulus loses its attention getting  abilities by virtue of its familiarity   So familiar w/ product people forget about it  Reduce likelihood of concentration   Perception: when stimuli are registered by one of our five senses o Elongation effect: when one believes a tall and skinny glass will hold more liquid  than a shorter wider glass  o Perceiving thru vision  Size and shape  Lettering  Color   Color dimensions   Color and physiological responses/ moods  Color and liking  o Perceiving thru hearing   Sonic identity  Using sound to support a brand’s image   Consistent w/ brand   Sound symbolism  Consumers will infer product attributes and form evaluations using information from a brand’s sounds, syllables, and words  o Perceiving thru taste   Varying perceptions of what “tastes good”  Culture background  In­store marketing   Can also be changed  o Perceiving thru smell   Smell and physiological response/ moods   Product trial  Liking  Buying  Does not have to physically be there; can be sensed thru photos  o Perceiving thru touch   Touch and physiological response/ moods   Liking  o When do we perceive stimuli?  Absolute Threshold  Minimal lvl of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus   Lowest lvl of stimulation @ which you can detect a difference  btwn “something” and “nothing”  Differential threshold  Intensity difference needed btwn 2 stimuli before they are  perceived to be different  o Just noticeable difference (JND): stimulation change  required to result in detection of a change   Usually constant proportion of the baseline intensity of the stimulus  K= change intensity / base intensity   Weber’s Law   The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different  o Perceptions are often the heart of mktg issues/ problems o What is perceived is not necessarily the truth   Does not always show the truth   Comprehension and Consumer Behavior o Comprehension: process of extracting higher order meaning from what we have  perceived in the context of what we already know  Objective: consumers accurately understand the message a sender  intended   Subjective: consumer understands the message, regardless whether  understanding is accurate o Closure Principle that individuals have a need to organize perceptions so they for  a meaningful whole  o Memory & Knowledge Pt. 1  Consumer Inferences o Based on brand names and brand symbols  People’s perception of taste is more than flavor, but by packaging o Use inferences o Making inferences based on product features and packaging  Inferred taste  Heaviness  choice  Making inferences based on Price & Quality o Perceive that price and quality correlate before people actually experience products  Inferences based on retail atmospherics and displays o People perceive an object to be worth more when placed in a setting where it fits in to a background THE TOPIC OF MEMORY  Memory: a personal storehouse of knowledge o People o Things o Experiences o Evaluations  Does memory always reflect the reality? o No  Ways to check memory o Recognition  Process of identifying whether we have previously encountered a stimulus when re-exposed to it o Recall  Ability to retrieve info from memory w/out being re- exposed to it  Does memory come in different types?  Is there a way to enhance memory?  Types of memories o Sensory  Experiences stored temporarily in memory as they are produced  Stored in actual sensory form  lasts from a ¼ second to a few seconds  not much processing/encoding unless we are motivated to process further  can be lost if not analyzed  memory storage area- sensory store  operates automatically  if further processed; moves to short term memory  info that comes through our senses  echoic: very brief memory for things we hear  iconic: brief memory for things we see o working memory  incoming info is encoded or interpreted in the context of existing knowledge and kept available for more processing  where most info processing takes place  can be hurt when we are distracted  forms:  discursive processing: memories form with aid of a list of words or phrases  imagery processing: memories form with aid of visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, olfactory senses  When Motivation, Availability, and Opportunity (MAO) are low;  Working memory consist of a simple reproduction of an object  When MAO is high  Working memory are more elaborated w/ fantasies as a result of the elaborated imagery processing o Long Term Memory  Part of memory where info is permanently stored for later use  Autobiographical/ Episodic Memory o Represents knowledge we have about ourselves and our past o Tend to be primarily sensory mainly involving visual images  May include smells, tastes and tactile sensations o Tend to be personal and idiosyncratic  Semantic Memory o Long term memory that is NOT related to specific experience o General knowledge about an entity; detached from specific episode o Include some concise summaries of objects, people, brands and events  Enhancing Memory o Chunking  Group of items that can be processed as a unit  Break down large materials to smaller easier ones o Rehearsal  Process of actively reviewing material in an attempt to remember it  Greater rehearsal increases strength of LTM; enhancing the likelihood trace can later be retrieved  Helps maintain info in STM  Aids in transfer of info in STM to LTM o Recirculation  Process by which info is remembered via repetition w/out active rehearsal o Elaboration  Transferring info into LTM by deeper level processing  Degree of integration btwn the stimulus and existing knowledge  Develop associations o Facilitating encoding  “A picture’s worth a thousand words”  memory for faces of high school classmates was 75% correct up to 40 yrs. After grad  recognition rates for 600+ ads  pictures easier to recall o facilitate feelings  ads can evoke feeling or emos  there is a bias toward retrieving positive memories which results in o more feelings during an ad o more favorable attitudes toward the ad and the brand Knowledge and Memory Pt. II  The importance of Knowledge o Knowledge can be affected through memory or thoughts  Knowledge o Knowledge content- info we already have stored in memory  Brands, products, companies, people o Knowledge structure- the way in which our knowledge content is organized  Info seen/ met but not stored into memory; cannot recall  Knowledge Content o Schema- Set of associations linked to a concept  Concept can be certain people, brands, stores, etc  Semantic/ associative networks o Set of concepts/ nodes connected by lengths o Trace strength: extent to which an assoc. or link is strongly/ weakly linked to a concept in mem.  Knots/ nodes; bacon, eggs, toast  Link: breakfast o Spreading of activation: process which retrieving one concept or assoc. spreads to retrieval of a related concept or assoc.  Brand image o Subset of assoc. that are salient and feeling related and are stored in a brand schema  “highlights”  Brand personality o Set of assoc. that reflect personification of a brand  Way consumer describes the brand if it were a person o Want definition; celebrity endorsement  Scripts o Special type of schema that reps our knowledge of sequence of actions involved in performing an activity  Helps consumers understand how they purchase  May want consumer to consider brand as part of scripted activity  Creating brand schema, image & personality o Brand extension  Use brand name of a product w/ a well-developed image on a product in a different category o Licensing  Firm sells rights to brand name to another company that will use the name on its product o Brand alliance  Two companies brand names appear together on single product o Matter of fit  Parent extension fit  Must fit the parent brands ideals or target market (ex: Patagonia making beef jerky)  Self-schema fit o A matter of mood  When people are happy, tend to try brand out of the ordinary and vice versa bad moods o A matter of involvement  Low involvement w/ brands wont persuades them either way o Example: Haagen-Dazs delicious ice cream ad with pears, cherries and honeybees to preserve bees.  Shows company’s efforts as well as info to “save the bees”  Knowledge Structure o Graded Structure  Fact that category members vary in how well they rep. a category  Anchor thoughts on a specific and then fan out o Crow Chicken  Penguins  Flamingos o Prototype  Best example of a cognitive category  Ex: coke  Prototype shares most assoc. w/ other members of its own category and shares fewest w/ members from dif. category  Frequency w/ which object is encountered as a category member  Prototypical products  Laundry: All, Tide, Gain  Ketchup: Heinz, Whataburger spicy ketchup o Knowledge structure: the way in which our knowledge content is organized o Hierarchical structure level  Superordinate level: broadest level of category org  Basic level: level of categorization below the superordinate category  Subordinate: level of categorization below the basic level  Example: store layout  Sections by Superordinate level o Produce, meats, cleaning supplies  Aisles by Basic level o Veggies & fruit, pasta & sauces  Shelves by Subordinate level o Crest v. Colgate  Knowledge Flexibility o Content and structure of knowledge flexible and adaptable to each indivi. @ each occasion  Goal Derived Categories o Things viewed as belonging in the same category if they fulfill same consumer goal  Things that are viewed as belonging in the same category b/c they serve same goal  Ad-hoc in nature (picnic; usually wouldn’t go together like food and blanket)  Why consumer knowledge differs o Cultural system  Assoc. linked to concept  Category members  Category prototypes  Correlated assoc  Goal derived categories o Level of product/ service expertise Memory and Knowledge Pt. III  Memory Retrieval o Process of remembering or accessing what we have stored in memory  Mind “blocks” o We don’t have the ability to retrieve what we want o Retrieval failures  Decay  Interference o Serial Position effects  Primacy & recency o Retrieval errors  Retrieval Failures o Decay  Weakening of memory nodes or links over time  Trace strength fade over time  Especially when not thought about often  The associated link  Can be reduced when we are repeatedly exposed to the info thru recirculation o Interference  Causes us to confuse which features go w/ which brand or concept due to semantic networks being too closely aligned  Not knowing the difference btwn Koreans, Chinese, Japanese, etc.  When consumer sees ad that looks similar, SIMILARITY INTERFERES w/ brand recall  Coke v Pepsi o Primacy effect  Tendency to show greater memory for info that comes first in sequence o Recency Effect  Tendency to show greater memory for info that comes last in sequence  Retrieval errors, memory problems o What we remember is not always accurate or complete o Mem distortion/ confusion o Mem is selective  People are motivated to suppress things that are bad about ourselves and keep info that is motivating to ourselves o False alarms (Gender Study)  Do men and women have a different way of memorizing things  Recall commercials  Recognition test of commercials  Recall: Men tend to write basic info; women more detailed  Recognition: men make false alarms while women remember more info  Linking stimulus-retrieval cues o Retrieval cue  Stimulus that facilitates a node’s activation in mem  All linked to other concepts in memory  Brand name  Logos  Package  Category names  Typefaces (ex: Wendy’s)  Will remember if it’s easier to process  Ex: Pillsbury Dough-boy  Enhancing retrieval o Processing  Dual coding: 2-modality representation  Idea that if a person visually sees something 10 times and hears something 10 times; there are 2 different ways info was coded  More effective for mem retrieval w/ 2 forms of memory  Better to use more than one form of processing o Consumer characteristics  Mood  Mood variations will vary their characteristics  Mem will be more salient depending on mood  Expertise  Can hinder mood involved w/ memory  Final point on memory o Mem can differ from reality  Accentuate somethings  Eliminate others  Add some


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