Memory, Week 5, Psych 101
Memory, Week 5, Psych 101 Psych 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Memory Memory Shortterm memory stores a limited amount of info for about 20 seconds without rehearsing it Longterm memory stores an unlimited amount of information for perhaps a lifetime Types of memory Declarative (explicit) facts or events Episodicwhen and where of your life happenings; autobiographical Semantic persons knowledge about the world; facts Nondeclarative (implicit) no conscious recollection; how to ride a bike, classical conditioning, implicit attitude formation Sensory lasts up to several seconds echoic auditory iconic visual Stages of memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Encoding Automatic vs. effortful Rehearsal amount learned = time spent learning Spacing effect rehearsal works best when spaced out Serial position effect tend to remember beginnings and end, not middle Encoding strategies Meaning think of examples that are personally meaningful Imagery mental images help us remember better (mnemonics) Organizing information Chunking (acronyms) Hierarchies Storage Long term potentiation increase in synaptic efficiency RNA synthesis increases during learning Enriched rats Shortterm memory 7 +/ 2 units Decays rapidly over time Needs rehearsal to become long term Where in the brain? Hippocampus Amygdala emotional memories Cortex Cerebellum implicit (riding a bicycle) Retrieval Recall vs. recognition Factors that affect retrieval Distinctiveness flashbulb memories, von Restorff effect Testing effects retrieval is helped by previous retrieval Retrieval cues (priming “wakening of associations”) o Association tablechair o Encoding specificity cues present at encoding will help with retrieval Context (music, odor, temp., timeofday, body kinesthetic, pain) Mood State (drunk or high) All have found that retrieval is better under matching conditions Forgetting Ineffective coding Protective interference similar information interferes with each other Retroactive interference new information pushes out the old Misinformation incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event Source amnesia attribution of a wrong source to an event False retrieval Mistaken recall of some stimulus or event that did not actually occur Elizabeth Loftus reconstruction of memory o Eyewitness testimony Time Repressed memories Younger than 3 don’t believe it Drugs or hypnosis don’t believe it Improving your memory Study repeatedly Spend more time actively thinking about the material Make the material personally meaningful Mnemonic devices
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