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Memory, Week 5, Psych 101

by: Phoebe Notetaker

Memory, Week 5, Psych 101 Psych 101

Phoebe Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 7 in the textbook. The notes cover memory, and how your brain creates, stores, and retrieves memories.
General Psychology
Class Notes
Pyschology, psych101, psyc101, Intro to Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 09/21/16
Memory ­Memory  Short­term memory­ stores a limited amount of info for about 20 seconds without  rehearsing it  Long­term memory­ stores an unlimited amount of information for perhaps a lifetime ­Types of memory  Declarative (explicit)­ facts or events ­ Episodic­when and where of your life happenings; autobiographical ­ Semantic­ persons knowledge about the world; facts  Non­declarative (implicit)­ no conscious recollection; how to ride a bike, classical  conditioning, implicit attitude formation  Sensory­ lasts up to several seconds ­ echoic­ auditory ­ iconic­ visual  ­Stages of memory  Encoding  Storage  Retrieval ­Encoding  Automatic vs. effortful ­ Rehearsal­ amount learned = time spent learning ­ Spacing effect­ rehearsal works best when spaced out ­ Serial position effect­ tend to remember beginnings and end, not middle  Encoding strategies  ­ Meaning­ think of examples that are personally meaningful ­ Imagery­ mental images help us remember better (mnemonics)  Organizing information ­ Chunking (acronyms) ­ Hierarchies ­Storage  Long term potentiation­ increase in synaptic efficiency ­ RNA synthesis increases during learning ­ Enriched rats  Short­term memory­ 7 +/­ 2 units ­ Decays rapidly over time ­ Needs rehearsal to become long term  Where in the brain? ­ Hippocampus ­ Amygdala­ emotional memories ­ Cortex ­ Cerebellum­ implicit (riding a bicycle) ­Retrieval  Recall vs. recognition  Factors that affect retrieval ­ Distinctiveness­ flashbulb memories, von Restorff effect ­ Testing effects­ retrieval is helped by previous retrieval ­ Retrieval cues­ (priming­ “wakening of associations”) o Association­ table­chair o Encoding specificity­ cues present at encoding will help with retrieval  Context (music, odor, temp., time­of­day, body kinesthetic,  pain)  Mood  State (drunk or high)  All have found that retrieval is better under matching  conditions ­Forgetting  Ineffective coding  Protective interference­ similar information interferes with each other  Retroactive interference­ new information pushes out the old  Misinformation­ incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event  Source amnesia­ attribution of a wrong source to an event  False retrieval ­ Mistaken recall of some stimulus or event that did not actually occur ­ Elizabeth Loftus­ reconstruction of memory o Eyewitness testimony  Time  Repressed memories ­ Younger than 3­ don’t believe it ­ Drugs or hypnosis­ don’t believe it ­Improving your memory  Study repeatedly  Spend more time actively thinking about the material  Make the material personally meaningful  Mnemonic devices


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