4 Class Days - Anthropology Notes
4 Class Days - Anthropology Notes Anth 1101
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Haggar on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1101 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Catherine Fuentes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
08-29-16 Anthropology- The study of biological and cultural similarities and differences Four basic types of sociocultural systems: Band Societies: Basic social unit associated with hunting and gathering – until about 10,000 years ago we lived in bands as hunters and gatherers. o Usually a small group of 100 people all related by marriage or kinship. o Small, mobile, and fluctuating Ex. Kun-sang, Eskimo, etc. – Hunters & Gatherers Mbuti – clothing made from bark Mobile because you will run out of resources if sedentary o Egalitarian – no social classes, equal access to all resources, no divisions of wealth or property, they are whole. o Reciprocal distribution o Division of labor based on gender and age o No war – share within and between groups because its in their best interest to do so Women bring in bulk of calories through gathering Tribes o Larger and more sedentary o Horticulturalists or pastoralists o Fairly egalitarian o Kinship based o “Big Man” – big brother like figure, informal, charismatic leader that people choose to listen to at times o No government o Frequent warfare – very different than today Tribal War fights with another tribe in the same group. Goal isn’t necessarily to kill people. o Little specialization – everyone is kind of doing the same thing, no social classes Chiefdoms o Much larger and more socially stratified – 10s of thousands, larger than tribes o Usually intensive agriculture – animals pulling plows, irrigation o Still kinship based o Start to see a little bit of stratification o Government – Chief Chief is easily replaceable, also there isn’t an extreme difference between haves and the have not’s for him and the rest. Begin to see a little bit of specialization and individuality between kin groups o Redistribution networks o Frequent warfare States o Non-Industrial States: Aren’t based on fossil fuel industries, they are labor intensive and may have some household-based manufacturing o Industrial States: Have an economic production that is based on the use of machines, fossil fuels, and nuclear fuels. o Large, sedentary settlements – millions of people o Social stratification Jobs aren’t all valued or paid the same Slavery exists o Political power of the few o Class-based o Complex – tremendous specialization o Centralized power o Market economy Culture: Food, humor, language, etc. Socialcultural Systems: Economics etc. Two critical junctures in the evolution of sociocultural systems: Food Production o We are able to get larger groups and free people up of food production o People no longer have to gather or hunt Evolution of the state Model of the Evolution of the State Ecological Trigger Intensification (Pop. Pressure & Envir. Change) (Irrigation) Nucleation Differentiation/Specialization Stratification Centralization of Power Nucleation: Not nomadic, not spread out Specialization: Don’t have to study the same thing, or grow crops Stratification: Guy who farms crops, doesn’t have the same status as someone who studies math Centralization of Power: Need for government due to the unbalance of roles What do we do when we run out of land? – Take over somebody else’s land -Men who do nothing but learn how to fight and go to war It took this shift to agriculture to sustain larger populations, but it comes with positives and negatives o Inequality o Slavery o Warfare o Industrialization (type of urban state we live in today) Tremendous population increase Increased stratification - globally Consumer countries (us) and producer countries Production is an individual effort – groups no longer hunt and farm Shift from kinship to class based Philosophy becomes secularized: Connections between ancestors and gods no longer there Machines and so on Machines alienate workers High degrees of specialization Oncologists, gynecologists, dentists, singers, etc. Inefficient in energy use, changed the globe more in 50 years than our ancestors in the years prior. World System o Entire world involved in industrial production o Population shifts – big industries come and buy out/outsell existing agriculture based communities, so they move o Inequalities are heightened Went rural to urban in a few hundred years Archaeology and the History of the First Cities Unearth Excavate Age Explain The First Permanent Settlements Agricultural Revolution o Before this revolution/Neolithic period they were domesticating foods o Leads to first cities/urban areas Domestication of plants The First Cities Possibly Jericho In present day Israel Population over 600 people Complex social life o Division of labor o Complex materials – brick houses o A wall itself, implies domestication and stratification o Large scale public works and a need for defense Catal Huyuk Entrance through the roof Present day turkey Population around 6,000 Jericho and Catal Huyuk are the first real cities From about 8000 BCE and 4000 BCE cities are scattered Get city-states around 4000 BCE to 500 BCE and they start to expand and gain control of surrounding regions o Alliances and Wars occur Leads to urban empires around the world o Urban Empires: 2 or more city states The First Urban Empire Mesopotamia o In the Fertile Crescent o Made up of cities like Uruk, Eridu, and Ur o Socially complex o Domesticating food – first agriculture Wheat barely Oxen o Plows and wheels o Population as high as 50,000 (huge!) o Large settlements turn into cities city states empires o Religion isn’t divided o Power hierarchy exists – nobles down to the lowest of the strata o Begin to see writing (tax or shipment records) Cuneiform Mathematics Code of law o Trade o Monumental Buildings Mesopotamia Religion o Theocracies o Ziggurats are for food distribution and worship Urban Empires: Indus Valley o Indus river along border of present day India and Pakistan o Excavations of two highly developed cities Mohenjo-Daro Broad boulevards in grid pattern Thriving seaport Brick work 60,000 people Like New York in some ways with broad boulevards and other avenues Health went down with the first cities o Things that helped were: o Sewage systems o Adaptation to disease Citadel as administrative center Granary Mud-brick houses – with front doors and back doors o Advanced Cities occur much later in Americas as they did in the middle east Mesoamerica Around present day central Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala as well as in South America o Capital of urban empire of Chimor (Peru) o Mainly used by ruling class o Ritual city o Average joe lived outside city walls Teotihuacan o Religious capital of Mexico City o Peak population 200,000 o Physically larger than imperial Rome o Channeled rivers to form to a grid pattern o Grid like (planned) o Pyramid of the Sun 720-760 foot base, over 200 feet tall Took roughly 50 years to build, proof of stratification Rome o Dominant power by the time of Christ o Population of nearly 1 million o Servants, slaves, definite stratification o Famous roads, aqueducts Start to see complex social structure More material complexity Division of labor Power hierarchy Early cities were small by todays standards Many only had 30/40 thousand people Many were theocratic Power structure where kings were also priests o Religious and Political leaders are one in the same New variation in quality of life Unlike bands or chiefdoms there is a lot of inequaulity Start to see growth in arts, food production, etc. The fall of Rome comes to a screeching halt Many cities disappear entirely after The empire kept things going and allowed cities to flourish Antiurban Period: Early Middle Ages o Fortified cities o Fuedal System Local lords have land, bring in the people who don’t own land to work on it, and they provide food and protection Short time period Urban Revival th th th o Later Middle Ages (12 Centuries) into the Renaissance (12 -16 Centuries) o Crusades: Rebirth of trade routes, rebirth of roads, craft Rebirth of cities and flourishing society o Medieval Cities Fortified with moats Gates Catholic church as center of social life No huge monuments Growth into Renaissance Art, literature, architecture seen again Merchant class gains power Another Urban Revolution People begin flocking to city End of feudalism Commerce is replacing agriculture o New growing middle class due to this o Demographic shift to cities Industrialization in Europe BIG CHANGES o Factories begin o Death rates outpaced by birth rates o City populations begin to grow rapidly o Europe becomes a continent of cities o Sanitation advancements begin Begin to see Megacities 10 million or more Fasting growing city Colonial Era Earl cities in strategic locations o New Amsterdam (Now NY) o Boston What distinguishes them? o Small population o Personal lifestyles Small, homogenous (religious wise) Cohesive communities Don’t look like, or act like cities o Different building patterns o Focus on profit o 2 million English, 400 thousand slaves Shortly after NY becomes capital Urban-Rural Tension Westward movement Taking territories North Industry and Rural Agriculture feud tension Rise of Metopolitan Cities This push for industrialization was one of the cause of big cities in the US Migration Cities that have buildings that are made of iron and steel which allow them to be multiple stories o Elevators Public transportation o Steam trains o Leads to cars Cultural diversity o Migrants o African Americans from south to north Social Segregation o Poor people, people of color, etc o Place of work separate fro where you live o Growth of suburbs partly because growth of transportation Urban areas grow o Immigration policies begin Which further pushes immigration of African americans from south to north o Racial tensions, riots, political problems o Some begin to strike it rich Continuation of decentralization Since 1950, outward movement was high as people moved into suburbs. Loosing industrial jobs and moving to parks outside of the suburbs. Eventually businesses follow, movie theatres, grocery stores, etc. Technological changes Becomes possible to live outside the city and commute back and forth or to use a fax machine/computer to eliminate need to commute at all Decentralization is leading to urban sprawl MSA: Metropolitan Statistical Area – This is at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants and a total population of at least 100,000 i.e. Washington DC, New York, Boston Growth of urban areas in south and west Megalopolis: Another term related to the continuous sprawl of decentralization, BosWash Corridor, Dallas-Fort Worth. Modern Cities Sunbelt Expansion A second big change of the US cities since 1950 Major population growth in the South and West o Can better accommodate new tech style jobs o Taxes and cost of living is lower and energy costs are cheaper o Warmer, more jobs BosWash corridor – can get goods to Canada quickly as well as Florida, so there are still some “snowbelt assets”. Due to snowbelt debits and sunbelt assets New York Poor minorities Jobs start to leave cities Riots Unemployment o Return to the cities in a new urban renewal or economic revitalization, why? Growth of white collar businesses Computer technology We are now service based, very little manufacturing because other countries do it for us Leads to gentrification (pushing out of poor) – isn’t necessarily good for everyone Future of Posindustrial Cities o Edge Cities – on the fringe of older urban areas (i.e. University City) with office parks, shopping malls, etc. We don’t have to go to uptown to get stuff. o Revitalization of older cities Life as Hunters & Gatherers to urban cities to urban life today In what ways was the health of humans better before urbanization? o Earlier cities, health went down, but now it has gotten better because of sanitation measures and so on o Polluted environments in early cities o Good diets (vegetation, fish, bugs) single grains wide variety, not necessarily healthy o No inequality, everyone has equal axis o Large populations, sitting still, begin to see diseases (cholera, bubonic plague) o No war o Not just infectious diseases, but chronic diseases get worse. Like arthritis o Bodies get more stressed physically – work is harder o Old society, small group, we evolved to notice differences, which has a psychological impact on us, were supposed to know everyone around us, if a group got too large, we would break off to balance the rest out. o Higher rates of cancer o Homelessness, racial tensions, sex/gender struggles Which type is better? Why? In what what ways has urbanization improved our health? o Sanitation standards o Cleaner water, waste standards o Privacy with larger urban places – good for mental health o Test Monday Sept 26 Multiple choice & short essay 3x4 Index Card Cheat Sheet Stanley Milgram: “The Urban Experience: A Psychological Analysis”: 1. What is the goal of Milgram’s article? 2. What is psychic overload and how do residents of the city adapt to it? (6 specific ways) 3. What is the main consequence of these adaptations to overload? Examples? Worth said: Population numbers, density, diversity. Constant sources of stimuli in urban environments Cannot pay attention to everything on brain, psychic overload ON TEST 1 or 2 adaptations Ignore inputs that aren’t really important Reduce inputs Boundaries redrawn Absorb inputs that would otherwise swamp the individual Milgram says there's a way to adapt to these stimuli, but there are certain consequences/outcomes of this: 1 or 2 consequences Unwillingness to intervene in a crisis o By living in these large dense populations, we aren’t tied to each other like the small kin groups. Ex. Kiddie Jenavives. Physical Privacy o Social/Emotional Distance o At what point should a bystander step in Unwillingness to trust or help strangers Being Rude o Stereotype of the north Cities develop new norms of non-involvement, in situations of high population density people can only look after themselves. Overall: Act different towards strangers than someone you know, different through the groups you are around.
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