New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

4 Class Days - Anthropology Notes

by: Keely Haggar

4 Class Days - Anthropology Notes Anth 1101

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Charlotte > Anth 1101 > 4 Class Days Anthropology Notes
Keely Haggar
GPA 2.0
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Intro to Anthropology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Intro to Anthropology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

The main notes that have been taken the past four classes that I have attended.
Intro to Anthropology
Catherine Fuentes
Class Notes




Popular in Intro to Anthropology

Popular in Department

This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Haggar on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1101 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Catherine Fuentes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


Reviews for 4 Class Days - Anthropology Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/21/16
08-29-16 Anthropology- The study of biological and cultural similarities and differences Four basic types of sociocultural systems:  Band Societies: Basic social unit associated with hunting and gathering – until about 10,000 years ago we lived in bands as hunters and gatherers. o Usually a small group of 100 people all related by marriage or kinship. o Small, mobile, and fluctuating  Ex. Kun-sang, Eskimo, etc. – Hunters & Gatherers  Mbuti – clothing made from bark  Mobile because you will run out of resources if sedentary o Egalitarian – no social classes, equal access to all resources, no divisions of wealth or property, they are whole. o Reciprocal distribution o Division of labor based on gender and age o No war – share within and between groups because its in their best interest to do so  Women bring in bulk of calories through gathering  Tribes o Larger and more sedentary o Horticulturalists or pastoralists o Fairly egalitarian o Kinship based o “Big Man” – big brother like figure, informal, charismatic leader that people choose to listen to at times o No government o Frequent warfare – very different than today  Tribal War fights with another tribe in the same group. Goal isn’t necessarily to kill people. o Little specialization – everyone is kind of doing the same thing, no social classes  Chiefdoms o Much larger and more socially stratified – 10s of thousands, larger than tribes o Usually intensive agriculture – animals pulling plows, irrigation o Still kinship based o Start to see a little bit of stratification o Government – Chief  Chief is easily replaceable, also there isn’t an extreme difference between haves and the have not’s for him and the rest.  Begin to see a little bit of specialization and individuality between kin groups o Redistribution networks o Frequent warfare  States o Non-Industrial States: Aren’t based on fossil fuel industries, they are labor intensive and may have some household-based manufacturing o Industrial States: Have an economic production that is based on the use of machines, fossil fuels, and nuclear fuels. o Large, sedentary settlements – millions of people o Social stratification  Jobs aren’t all valued or paid the same  Slavery exists o Political power of the few o Class-based o Complex – tremendous specialization o Centralized power o Market economy Culture: Food, humor, language, etc. Socialcultural Systems: Economics etc. Two critical junctures in the evolution of sociocultural systems:  Food Production o We are able to get larger groups and free people up of food production o People no longer have to gather or hunt  Evolution of the state Model of the Evolution of the State Ecological Trigger Intensification (Pop. Pressure & Envir. Change) (Irrigation) Nucleation Differentiation/Specialization Stratification Centralization of Power Nucleation: Not nomadic, not spread out Specialization: Don’t have to study the same thing, or grow crops Stratification: Guy who farms crops, doesn’t have the same status as someone who studies math Centralization of Power: Need for government due to the unbalance of roles What do we do when we run out of land? – Take over somebody else’s land -Men who do nothing but learn how to fight and go to war  It took this shift to agriculture to sustain larger populations, but it comes with positives and negatives o Inequality o Slavery o Warfare o Industrialization (type of urban state we live in today)  Tremendous population increase  Increased stratification - globally  Consumer countries (us) and producer countries  Production is an individual effort – groups no longer hunt and farm  Shift from kinship to class based  Philosophy becomes secularized:  Connections between ancestors and gods no longer there  Machines and so on  Machines alienate workers  High degrees of specialization  Oncologists, gynecologists, dentists, singers, etc.  Inefficient in energy use, changed the globe more in 50 years than our ancestors in the years prior.  World System o Entire world involved in industrial production o Population shifts – big industries come and buy out/outsell existing agriculture based communities, so they move o Inequalities are heightened  Went rural to urban in a few hundred years Archaeology and the History of the First Cities  Unearth  Excavate  Age  Explain The First Permanent Settlements  Agricultural Revolution o Before this revolution/Neolithic period they were domesticating foods o Leads to first cities/urban areas  Domestication of plants The First Cities  Possibly Jericho  In present day Israel  Population over 600 people  Complex social life o Division of labor o Complex materials – brick houses o A wall itself, implies domestication and stratification o Large scale public works and a need for defense Catal Huyuk  Entrance through the roof  Present day turkey  Population around 6,000 Jericho and Catal Huyuk are the first real cities  From about 8000 BCE and 4000 BCE cities are scattered  Get city-states around 4000 BCE to 500 BCE and they start to expand and gain control of surrounding regions o Alliances and Wars occur  Leads to urban empires around the world o Urban Empires: 2 or more city states The First Urban Empire  Mesopotamia o In the Fertile Crescent o Made up of cities like Uruk, Eridu, and Ur o Socially complex o Domesticating food – first agriculture  Wheat barely  Oxen o Plows and wheels o Population as high as 50,000 (huge!) o Large settlements turn into cities  city states  empires o Religion isn’t divided o Power hierarchy exists – nobles down to the lowest of the strata o Begin to see writing (tax or shipment records)  Cuneiform  Mathematics  Code of law o Trade o Monumental Buildings  Mesopotamia Religion o Theocracies o Ziggurats are for food distribution and worship  Urban Empires: Indus Valley o Indus river along border of present day India and Pakistan o Excavations of two highly developed cities  Mohenjo-Daro  Broad boulevards in grid pattern  Thriving seaport  Brick work  60,000 people  Like New York in some ways with broad boulevards and other avenues  Health went down with the first cities o Things that helped were: o Sewage systems o Adaptation to disease  Citadel as administrative center  Granary  Mud-brick houses – with front doors and back doors o Advanced  Cities occur much later in Americas as they did in the middle east  Mesoamerica  Around present day central Mexico, Yucatan Peninsula, and Guatemala as well as in South America o Capital of urban empire of Chimor (Peru) o Mainly used by ruling class o Ritual city o Average joe lived outside city walls  Teotihuacan o Religious capital of Mexico City o Peak population 200,000 o Physically larger than imperial Rome o Channeled rivers to form to a grid pattern o Grid like (planned) o Pyramid of the Sun  720-760 foot base, over 200 feet tall  Took roughly 50 years to build, proof of stratification  Rome o Dominant power by the time of Christ o Population of nearly 1 million o Servants, slaves, definite stratification o Famous roads, aqueducts  Start to see complex social structure  More material complexity  Division of labor  Power hierarchy  Early cities were small by todays standards  Many only had 30/40 thousand people  Many were theocratic  Power structure where kings were also priests o Religious and Political leaders are one in the same  New variation in quality of life  Unlike bands or chiefdoms there is a lot of inequaulity  Start to see growth in arts, food production, etc. The fall of Rome comes to a screeching halt  Many cities disappear entirely after  The empire kept things going and allowed cities to flourish  Antiurban Period: Early Middle Ages o Fortified cities o Fuedal System  Local lords have land, bring in the people who don’t own land to work on it, and they provide food and protection  Short time period  Urban Revival th th th o Later Middle Ages (12 Centuries) into the Renaissance (12 -16 Centuries) o Crusades: Rebirth of trade routes, rebirth of roads, craft  Rebirth of cities and flourishing society o Medieval Cities  Fortified with moats  Gates  Catholic church as center of social life  No huge monuments Growth into Renaissance  Art, literature, architecture seen again  Merchant class gains power Another Urban Revolution  People begin flocking to city  End of feudalism  Commerce is replacing agriculture o New growing middle class due to this o Demographic shift to cities  Industrialization in Europe  BIG CHANGES o Factories begin o Death rates outpaced by birth rates o City populations begin to grow rapidly o Europe becomes a continent of cities o Sanitation advancements begin Begin to see Megacities  10 million or more  Fasting growing city Colonial Era  Earl cities in strategic locations o New Amsterdam (Now NY) o Boston  What distinguishes them? o Small population o Personal lifestyles  Small, homogenous (religious wise)  Cohesive communities  Don’t look like, or act like cities o Different building patterns o Focus on profit o 2 million English, 400 thousand slaves  Shortly after NY becomes capital Urban-Rural Tension  Westward movement  Taking territories  North Industry and Rural Agriculture feud tension Rise of Metopolitan Cities  This push for industrialization was one of the cause of big cities in the US  Migration  Cities that have buildings that are made of iron and steel which allow them to be multiple stories o Elevators  Public transportation o Steam trains o Leads to cars  Cultural diversity o Migrants o African Americans from south to north  Social Segregation o Poor people, people of color, etc o Place of work separate fro where you live o Growth of suburbs partly because growth of transportation  Urban areas grow o Immigration policies begin  Which further pushes immigration of African americans from south to north o Racial tensions, riots, political problems o Some begin to strike it rich Continuation of decentralization  Since 1950, outward movement was high as people moved into suburbs. Loosing industrial jobs and moving to parks outside of the suburbs. Eventually businesses follow, movie theatres, grocery stores, etc.  Technological changes  Becomes possible to live outside the city and commute back and forth or to use a fax machine/computer to eliminate need to commute at all  Decentralization is leading to urban sprawl MSA: Metropolitan Statistical Area – This is at least one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants and a total population of at least 100,000  i.e. Washington DC, New York, Boston  Growth of urban areas in south and west Megalopolis: Another term related to the continuous sprawl of decentralization, BosWash Corridor, Dallas-Fort Worth. Modern Cities Sunbelt Expansion  A second big change of the US cities since 1950  Major population growth in the South and West o Can better accommodate new tech style jobs o Taxes and cost of living is lower and energy costs are cheaper o Warmer, more jobs  BosWash corridor – can get goods to Canada quickly as well as Florida, so there are still some “snowbelt assets”.  Due to snowbelt debits and sunbelt assets New York  Poor minorities  Jobs start to leave cities  Riots  Unemployment o Return to the cities in a new urban renewal or economic revitalization, why?  Growth of white collar businesses  Computer technology  We are now service based, very little manufacturing because other countries do it for us  Leads to gentrification (pushing out of poor) – isn’t necessarily good for everyone  Future of Posindustrial Cities o Edge Cities – on the fringe of older urban areas (i.e. University City) with office parks, shopping malls, etc.  We don’t have to go to uptown to get stuff. o Revitalization of older cities Life as Hunters & Gatherers to urban cities  to urban life today  In what ways was the health of humans better before urbanization? o Earlier cities, health went down, but now it has gotten better because of sanitation measures and so on o Polluted environments in early cities o Good diets (vegetation, fish, bugs)  single grains  wide variety, not necessarily healthy o No inequality, everyone has equal axis o Large populations, sitting still, begin to see diseases (cholera, bubonic plague) o No war o Not just infectious diseases, but chronic diseases get worse. Like arthritis o Bodies get more stressed physically – work is harder o Old society, small group, we evolved to notice differences, which has a psychological impact on us, were supposed to know everyone around us, if a group got too large, we would break off to balance the rest out. o Higher rates of cancer o Homelessness, racial tensions, sex/gender struggles  Which type is better? Why?  In what what ways has urbanization improved our health? o Sanitation standards o Cleaner water, waste standards o Privacy with larger urban places – good for mental health o Test Monday Sept 26 Multiple choice & short essay 3x4 Index Card Cheat Sheet Stanley Milgram: “The Urban Experience: A Psychological Analysis”: 1. What is the goal of Milgram’s article? 2. What is psychic overload and how do residents of the city adapt to it? (6 specific ways) 3. What is the main consequence of these adaptations to overload? Examples? Worth said: Population numbers, density, diversity.  Constant sources of stimuli in urban environments  Cannot pay attention to everything on brain, psychic overload ON TEST 1 or 2 adaptations  Ignore inputs that aren’t really important  Reduce inputs  Boundaries redrawn  Absorb inputs that would otherwise swamp the individual Milgram says there's a way to adapt to these stimuli, but there are certain consequences/outcomes of this: 1 or 2 consequences  Unwillingness to intervene in a crisis o By living in these large dense populations, we aren’t tied to each other like the small kin groups. Ex. Kiddie Jenavives.  Physical Privacy o Social/Emotional Distance o At what point should a bystander step in  Unwillingness to trust or help strangers  Being Rude o Stereotype of the north  Cities develop new norms of non-involvement, in situations of high population density people can only look after themselves. Overall: Act different towards strangers than someone you know, different through the groups you are around.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.