Fund. of Music Theory Notes
Fund. of Music Theory Notes Musc 1001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Jane't on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Musc 1001 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Ms. Sanchez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Music Theory notes Chapter 1: Time o Music time is underlined by pulse. o Tactus/beat is the pulse (How the music is heard not notated (how music is written)) o BPM beats per minute (usually measured by a metronome) (Sometimes notated in a piece) Presto: Quickly Moderato: Moderate Adante: Walking pace Adagio: Slow Grave: Deathly slow Robato: Beat (adjusting tempo) Meter: Beats grouped together with metric accent Poco: A little Moto: Very much Issmo: most o Duple meter 2 beats in 1 measure (2 4 time) o Triple meter 3 beats in 1 measure (3 4 time) o Quadruple meter 4 beats in 1 measure (4 4 time or cut time) o Anacurus 1 or more secondary beats (first down beat) (E.x. The Star Spangeled Banner) Chapter 2: Pitch o Pitch is the "highness" or "lowness" of a sound. o Steps are closer together. o Leaps or skips are farther apart Clefs o Treble clef is also considered the "G" clef. o Bass clef is also considered the "F" clef. Designated Register o Middle C is labeled C4. o The C below middle C is labeled C3 and so forth. Chapter 3: Accidentals o Sharps raise the pitch a half step. o Flats lower the pitch a half step. o When different note names indicate the same pitch, these note names are called enharmonically equivalent. o A double sharp indicates a pitch 2 half steps higher. o A double flat indicates a pitch 2 half steps lower. Diatonic and Chromatic half steps o A diatonic half step is the interval between 2 notes that are a half step apart and have different note names. o There is always a diatonic half step between B and C and E and F. o A chromatic half step is the interval between 2 notes that are a half step apart and have the same note name. o A half step is also called a semitone. Whole Step o A whole step is the interval between 2 pitches that are 2 half steps apart (major second). Chapter 4: Time Signatures o Any note value can represent the beat as long as that note value can be divided equally into either 2 for simple meter or 3 for compound meter. o The top number of a time signature tells you how many beats are in a measure. o The bottom number tells you what type of note gets the beat. Keyboard o To the right is sharp. o To the left is flat. Compound Meters o Because a compound meter involves a triple division of the beat, the note value to which we assign the beat much be divisible into three equal parts using unaltered note values. o In order for a note to be divided into three of the lower value, the note must be dotted (E.x. three eighth notes in one dotted quarter note). Compound Duple Meter o We begin with compound meter, and assign the dotted quarter note to represent the beat. o Unlike simple meters, where the bottom number of the time signature represents the note value of the bear, there is no straightforward way to represent a time signature of “two dotted quarter notes per measure” using whole numbers. o Instead, we move to the division of the beat to describe a compound time signature (E.x six eighth notes in each measure, so the time signature is 6/8). o In compound meters, the time signature represents the content of the measure (six eighth notes), but doesn’t directly represent the beat. Compound Triple Meter o Recognize compound time signatures based on: 1) The top number of the time signature is divisible by three 2) The tempo supports the dotted note value as the beat. o Sometimes you will see the dotted eighth note chosen to represent the beat in 9/16. o There are three sixteenth notes in a dotted eighth note; in triple meter, the total of the durations in each measure equals three dotted eighth notes. o 9/4 and 9/16 are the same just don’t look the same. You count this as (1 la lee 2 la lee) and so on. Compound Quadruple Meter o The most compound quadruple meter is 12/8 (12 divided by 3=4); in this case, the beat is represented by the dotted quarter note, and the content of each compound quadruple measure will equal 4 dotted quarter notes. o Sometimes you will see the dotted eighth note chosen to represent the beat. o There are 3 sixteenth notes in a dotted eighth note. o In compound quadruple meter, the content of each measure will equal four dotted eighth notes. (This is represented by 12/16). o Use the smaller division of the beat
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