Book Notes for Chapter 3: Cells
Book Notes for Chapter 3: Cells BIOL 1050
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by rayparkerjr on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1050 at East Carolina University taught by Anne Bunnel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Biology Book Notes Chapter 3 Cells The cell is the smallest unit of life that can function independently and perform all functions of life. o Also the most basic unit of an organism. Microbes are the simplest, but most successful organisms on earth. All plants and animals are made from cells. Cell theory- all living organisms are made up of one or more cells and (2) all cells arise from other, preexisting living cells. (2) Cells A eukaryotic cell- has a central control structure called a nucleus, which contains the cell’s DNA. A prokaryotic cell- does not have a nucleus; its DNA simply resides in the cytoplasm. o 1 cells on earth Structure of Prokaryotic Cells o Plasma Membrane/Cell membrane- Encloses cell contents: DNA, Ribosomes, and Cytoplasm o Cytoplasm- jelly like fluid called, cystol o Ribosomes- where proteins are made. o DNA- has one or more circular loops or linear strands, in cytoplasm o Additional Functions are: Cell wall- protects and gives shape to the cell Flagellum- a long, thin, whip-like projection of the plasma membrane that rotates like a propeller and moves the cell through the medium in which it lives. Pili- much thinner, hair-like projections that help prokaryotes attach to surfaces and can serve as “tubes” through which they exchange DNA. o Photosynthesis- (the process by which plant cells capture light energy from the sun and transform it into the chemical energy stored in food molecules) o Somethings cant live without oxygen such as Archaea which are found in anaerobic (withoutout oxygen) environment. Venus, past Mars, Jupiter, and the moon lo. Structure of a Eukaryotic Cells o Every organism we can see are Eukaryotic organism. o DNA contained in nucleus o Larger than Prokaryotic cells o Cytoplasm’s, contains organelles- are enclosed separately by their own lipid membranes. Passive Transport Is diffusion of molecules across a membrane. 2 types: o (1) Simple Diffusion- molecules pass directly thru plasma membrane w/o assistance of another molecule. o Facilitated diffusion- molecules move across membrane with the assistance of a channel or carrier molecule. o (2) Osmosis- passive diffusion of water across a membrane. Direction of Osmosis depends on total concentration of all molecules dissolved in water. Isotonic solution- solute concentrations are balanced. Water movement is balanced Hypotonic solution- solute concentrations are lower than extracellular fluids. Water diffuses into cells Hypertonic solution- solute concentrations are higher than extracellular fluids. Water diffuses out of cells. Primary Active Transport Occurs when energy of in or out of cells require energy input. Increases ability to digest food in your stomach. Secondary Active Transport- Transport proteins against concentration gradient while letting another flow down concentration gradient. Other Organelles- Mitochondria- acts as a energy converter, and harvest all energy to be used for cellular functions o If they are non-functioning, we can have trouble producing enough energy for our cells. Chloroplast- is the plants cells power plant. o Site of photosynthesis take place conversion of light energy into chemical energy Endosymbiosis theory, provides the best explanation for the presence of two organelles in eukaryotes: chloroplasts in plants and algae, and mitochondria in plants and animals According to theory, two different types of prokaryotic cells have set up partnerships w/ each other’s. Ancestor and Prokaryote merge and form a mitochondria (plant) Ancestor folds itself and forms a nucleus (animal) Chloroplasts enable plants and algae to convert sunlight into a more usable form of energy. Mitochondria help plants and animals harness the energy stored in food molecules.