Ecology Week 5 Class Notes
Ecology Week 5 Class Notes BIOL 3060
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Hampton on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3060 at Auburn University taught by Dr. John Feminella in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology in Ecology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
BIOL 3060 9/13/16 Ways Limiting Factors Affect Responses o Saturation Response-asymptotic o Optimum Response Light and photosynthesis NaCl, Selenium o Sigmodial Response Temperature x Egg laying Development (incubation time) Maturation/growth o Warm-blooded/cold-blooded vs poikilothermic/homeothermic vs ectothermic/endothermic Temperature-Metabolism (Ectotherm) o Q la10every 10 ° C increase in temp, at least double the rate o Greater temp increases create greater consumption rate o E.g. grasshopper o E.g. Mosquito larvae Physiological time: time exceeding some lower temp threshold Temperature-Metabolism (Endotherm) o o More extreme the environment, more energy needed to stay at optimal o TNZ=thermoneutral zone Endo-Ectotherm Contrast Feature Ectotherm Endotherm Ability to regulate BT Limited Relative unlimited (Pro) Range of activity Restricted Less restricted (Pro) Predation Risk Potentially high Potentially low (Pro) Energetic cost Low Extremely high (low) 9/15/16 Adaptations to Temperature Variation o Variation in body size Ectotherms-small body size (high surface-volume) Heat up/cool down faster Endotherms-small body size (problem-heat retention) Large bodies @higher altitudesBergmann’s Rule (low surface- volume) o Variation in extremity size Larger extremities (endotherms) @ lower latitudesAllen’s Rule o Acclimation-adjustment to exposure to external temp Adjustment internally to exposure “seasonal environments” Not adaptation True for ectotherms & endotherms o All birds are endotherms o All marine mammals are homeotherms o Endotherms are most energetically efficient in the thermoneutral zone o Ectotherms rely on exogenous heat sources Physiological Ecology: Temperature Relations o Activity and Functional Morphology Thermal ‘basking’ Dryas flowers trace the sun each day petals reflect sunlight inwards heating the flower, allws insects to bask as well o Topographic Variation in vegetation (Aspect) Mediterranean Woodland (Chaparral) Northern facing slopes have more trees and big plants Southern facing slopes have more grass/shrubs o Temp, Aspect, Elevation Hopkins’ Bioclimatic Law: 1000ft of altitude=100miles of latitude=3.5 ° F Life zones in typical Southern Arizona Mountain o Diel Temp Variation: Soil vs Air Air temp fluctuated 14 ° C while at 22.5cm depth, soil temp varied only 4 ° C (@Sevilleta NWR, NM) But thermal amplitude varies with local conditions and soil depth o Temp Gradients across Microclimates Bare soil away from shrubs-48 ° C In litter under low shrub-29 ° C Decreasing temp maximum range In soil under low shrub-27 ° C In litter under tall shrub/In soil under tall shrub-21-23 ° C o Diel Temp Variation: Air vs Water 1-daily variation in air 2.5-28° C 2-daily variation in aquatic reed bed 7-20° C 3-daily variation in shallow riffle 10-14 ° C 4-daily variation in deep pool 8.5-16 ° C o Influence of Temp on Performance Rate of population growth by Antarctic bacteria, highest at 4 ° C Each point represents population size after 80 hours of incubation o Influence of Temp on Performance: Interspecific Differences Boreal-max rate photo=15 ° C Desert-max rate photo=44 ° C o Intraspecific Differences Acclimation: physiological & morphological adjustment through exposure Photosynthetic shrubs growing in hotter environment peaks at higher temp o Regulation of Body Temp Thermal ‘basking’ o Effectiveness of Behavior on Body temp o Effect of Air temp on Fungal Pathogens o Variation among species in Thermoneutral Zone o Endogenously Thermoregulating ectotherms “homeothermic ectotherm” o Metabolic Rate-Body Size relationship o Endotherms can reduce Metabolic Rate Ex: hummingbirds If lots of nectar available, no torpor, body temp 39 ° C If not a lot of nectar available, torpor, body temp 12-17 ° C Torpor: overnight inactivity & low metabolic rate Hibernation: winter inactivity & low metabolic rate Aestivation: summer inactivity & low metabolic rate o Temperature-Performance Relationship Physiological Ecology: Water Relations o Humidity-Temperature Relationship o o Effect of Relative Humidity (RH) on Water Loss Goal for terrestrial organisms: reduce desiccation Risk of desiccation when high vpd o Sources of Water Losses and Gains Water balance: Wd+Wf+Wa-We-Ws Wd-drinking Wf-food Wa-absorption We-emissivity/evaporation Ws-secretions Water (W) Losses=Gains Wind increases evaporative water loss Plants lose water mainly through transpiration o Evaporative cooling
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