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BIO 311C Textbook Notes based on Handout 5

by: Sena Sarikaya

BIO 311C Textbook Notes based on Handout 5 Bio 311C

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Biology > Bio 311C > BIO 311C Textbook Notes based on Handout 5
Sena Sarikaya

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About this Document

These are notes covering concepts from select sections of Campbell Biology Edition 10 chapter 6. The concept check questions and photo content are not my own. The concept question and photo content...
Introductory Biology I
Dr. Buskirk
Class Notes
intro to biology, Biology, introductory, Cell, organelles, cellular structure, eukaryotic cells
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sena Sarikaya on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 311C at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Buskirk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology I in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/21/16
Textbook Notes Based on Handout 5 Ch. 6 6.1 Biologists Use Microscopes and the Tools of Biochemistry to Study Cells A. Microscopy ­light microscope (LM): visible light passes through specimen then through glass  lenses ­first used by Renaissance scientists & used in labs ­lenses refract light so that image of specimen is magnified as it’s  projected to eye ­3 important parameters in microscopy  ­magnification = ratio of object’s image size to real size ­LM mag. to 1,000x actual size ­resolution = measure of clarity of image ­LM cannot resolve more than 0.3 micrometers ­regardless of mag. ­contrast = difference in brightness between light and dark areas ­staining & labeling cell components enhance contrast ­organelles: membrane­enclosed structures in eukaryotic cells ­until recently LM resolution barrier prevented studying  ­electron microscope (EM): focuses beam of elections through specimen or onto  its surface ­resolution inversely related to wavelength of light ­shorter wavelengths than vis. light ­theoretically can resolve about 0.002 nanometers  ­in practice can only resolve about 2 nanometers ­scanning electron microscope (SEM): electron beam scans surface o sample  usually coated w/ film of gold; beam excited surface e­ and secondary e­ are  detected by device that translate pattern of e­ into electronic signal sent to video  screen ­useful for detailed topography ­3D look ­uses electromagnets as lenses not glass ­transmission electron microscope (TEM): aims electron beam through thin  section of specimen; specimen stained w/ atoms of heavy metals which attaches to cell struct.; some parts of cell’s e­ density are enhanced ­image displays pattern of transmitted e­ ­study internal structure of cells ­uses electromagnets as lenses not glass ­advantage of EM… ­subcellular struc. revealed ­disadvantage of EM… ­methods for prep kill specimen ­cytology = study of cell struc.   A. Cell Fractionation ­cell fractionation: takes cells apart & separates organelles & subcellular struc.  from one another ­centrifuge used 6.2 Eukaryotic Cells Have Internal Membranes that Compartmentalizes Their Functions ­Bacteria & Archaea = prokaryotic  ­protists (unicellular eukaryotes), fungi, animals, plants = eukaryotic A. Comparing Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells ­cytosol: semifluid, jellylike substance where subcellular components suspend ­eukaryotic cell: most of DNA is in the nucleus bounded by a double membrane ­prokaryotic cell: DNA is concentrated in nucleoid; not membrane enclosed ­eukaryotic = true nucleus ­cytoplasm: interior of a cell ­in eukaryotes = btwn nucleus & plasma mem. ­in prokaryotes =  ­prokaryotes don’t have membrane­bound struct. ­organized in diff. regions ­eukaryotic cells larger ­plasma membrane: selective barrier that allows passage of oxygen, nutrients,  wastes ­ratio to volume is critical ­when cell grows, surface area grows less than volume ­utilize microvilli or folds ­larger organisms DO NOT have larger cells, they have more cells B. A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell 6.3 The Eukaryotic Cell’s Genetic Instructions Are Housed in The Nucleus And Carried Out By  the Ribosomes A. The Nucleus: Information Central ­nucleus: contains genes in eukaryotic cell ­nuclear envelope: encloses the nucleus; separates from cytoplasm ­double membrane ­lipid bilayer ­pore complex = intricate protein structure regulating entry & exit of  proteins & RNAs & macromol. ­nuclear lamina: netlike protein filament array giving nucleus the shape w/  mechanical support ­not @ pores ­nuclear matrix = framework of protein fibers through nuclear interior ­chromosomes: in nucleus how DNA is organized into discrete units ­each has one long DNA mol. w/ associated proteins ­chromatin: complex of DNA & protein making up chromosomes  ­chromosomes can’t be distinguished ­nucleolus: dense granules & fibers joining chromatin  ­where rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is synthesized ­proteins imported from cytoplasm are assembled w/ rRNA into large &  small ribosome subunits ­nucleus directs protein synthesis ­synthesizes mRNA (messenger RNA) according to DNA ­mRNA transported to cytoplasm by nuclear pores ­ribosomes translate mRNA genetic message into primary structure  B. Ribosomes: Protein Factories ­ribosomes: complexes made of rRNA & protein; carry out protein synthesis ­NOT an organelle b/c not membrane bound ­free ribosomes = suspended in cytosol ­proteins made by them funx in cytosol ­ex. enzymes ­bound ribosomes = attached to endoplasmic reticulum ­proteins made by them are inserted into membrane or packaged into  lysosome or secreted ­can alternate btwn free & bound 6.4 The Endomembrane System Regulates Protein Traffic & Performs Metabolic Functions in  the Cell ­endomembrane system: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,  lysosomes, vesicles, vacuoles, plasma membrane ­tasks… ­protein synthesis, protein transport into membranes & organelles & out,  metabolism, lipid movement, poison detox ­vesicles: sacs of membrane A. The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factor ­endoplasmic reticulum (ER): extensive network of membranes; more than half of total membrane in eukaryotic cells ­ER lumen = cavity/ cisternal space separate from cytosol by ER mem. ­smooth ER: no bound ribosomes ­rough ER: bound ribosomes a. Functions of Smooth ER ­lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, poison detox, calcium ion  storage ­steroids, sex hormones ­secreted ­adding hydroxyl to drug mol.  ­more soluble ­> easy to flush out b. Functions of Rough ER  ­secreted protein production ­glycoproteins: proteins w/ carbohydrates covalently bonded  ­built into ER membrane ­transport vesicles: vesicles in transit from one part of cell to others ­membrane factory for cell ­makes membrane phospholipids from cytosol precursors B. Golgi Apparatus: Shipping & Receiving Center ­Golgi apparatus: warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping, & some manufact. ­products of ER are modified & stored & sent to other destination ­flattened membranous sacs = cisternae ­structural directionality ­cis face = where vesicles from ER can add membrane to Golgi  ­trans face = where vesicles pinch off & travel to other sites  ­manufactures some macromolecules ­pectin, non cellulose polysaccharides ­cisternal maturation model = cisternae of Golgi progress forward from cis to  trans face carrying modified cargo during move ­ molecular identification tags added like mailing labels ­ex. phosphate groups ­transport vesicles from Golgi have external mol. on membrane that recog.  “docking sites” on specific organelle surfaces or plasma mem.  ­correct targeting of vesicles C. Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments ­lysosome: membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes for digesting macromol. ­too many lysosome leakages can destroy cell by self­digestion ­hydrolytic enzymes & membrane made by rough ER ­then transferred to Golgi for processing  ­3D shapes of proteins protect vulnerable bonds from own enzymatic attack ­phagocytosis: eating by engulfing smaller organisms/ food ­ex. amoebas & unicellular eukaryotes, some human cells (macrophages) ­autophagy = recycle cell’s own organic material ­Tay­Sachs disease caused by accumulation of lipids b/c lipid­digesting  enzyme is missing/ inactive ­brain is impaired D. Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments  ­vacuoles: large vesicles from endoplasmic reticulum & Golgi apparatus  ­food vacuoles: formed by phagocytosis  ­contractile vacuoles: pumps excess water out of cell  ­in unicellular eukaryotes in fresh water ­maintain suitable conc. of ions & molec.  ­certain vac. in plants & fungi have enzymatic hydrolysis carried out ­plants have small vac. to reserve organ. compounds  ­help protect plants against herbivores b/c have poisonous compounds stored ­some have pigments to attract pollination ­central vacuole: coalescence of smaller vacuoles in mature plant cells ­cell sap made inside E. The Endomembrane System: A Review Concept Check 6.4 1. Describe functional and structural distinctions between rough and smooth ER. The rough ER has ribosomes; both make phospholipids 2. Describe how transport vesicles integrate the endomembrane system. Substances are enclosed between endomembrane components.  3. Describe the proteins path through the cell staring with the mRNA molecule  that specifies the protein if a protein function in the ER but requires  modification in the Golgi apparatus before achieving that function.  mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and then to nuclear pore and then to  bound ribosome on the rough ER where protein is synthesized and transport  vesicle takes the protein to the Golgi apparatus and then back the ER. 6.5 Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Change Energy From One Form to Another ­mitochondria: site of cellular respiration; oxygen to ATP by extracting nrg from sugars ­chloroplasts: sites of photosynthesis A. The Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts  ­endosymbiont theory: early ancestry of eukaryotic cells engulfs oxygen­using­ non­photosynthetic prokaryotic cell B. Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion ­double phospholipid bilayer ­outer membrane is smooth ­cristae: membrane inner foldings ­creates larger surface area ­mitochondrial matrix: enclosed by inner membrane ­composed of enzymes C. Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy ­double membrane ­thylakoids: another membranous system of flattened interconnects sacs ­granum: thylakoid stacks ­stroma: fluid outside the thylakoids; contains chloroplast DNA ­plastids: chloroplasts a member of this specialized family ­ex. amyloplasts = colorless organelle that stores starch (amylose) ­ex. chromoplast = gives yellow/orange color to fruits & flowers D. Peroxisomes: Oxidation ­peroxisome: specialized metabolic compartment bound by single membrane ­enzymes remove hydrogen atoms from substrates & transfer to oxygen ­produces hydrogen peroxide ­ex. glyoxysomes = fat storing tissues of plants have these to converse  fatty acid to sugar Concept Check 6.5 1. Describe two common characteristics of chloroplasts and mitochondria.  Function = energy Membrane structure = folding or thylakoid membrane for larger surface area 2. Do plant cells have mitochondria? Explain. Yes; mitochondria make energy from sugars 3. Argue against why mitochondria and chloroplasts should be classified in the  endomembrane system. Neither are synthesized by the ER and are not bound to a single membrane.  6.6 The Cytoskeleton is a Network of Fibers that Organizes Structures & Activities in the Cell ­cytoskeleton: network of fibers extending throughout cytoplasm A. Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support & Motility ­obvious function = mechanical support & maintain shape ­especially important for animal cells b/c no cell walls ­some cell motility  ­motor proteins: interacts w/ cytoskeleton to move ­ex. how vesicles w/ neurotransmitter mol. migrate to axon tips ­manipulates plasma membrane ­bending to form food vacuoles/ phagocytic vesicles B. Components of the Cytoskeleton a. Microtubules ­microtubules: hollow rods constructed from globular protein (tubulin) ­each protein is a dimer = mol. of 2 subunits ­alpha­tubulin & beta­tubulin  ­grows by adding dimers ­one end can accumulate or release tubulin dimers @ higher rate ­plus end ­guides vesicles from ER to Golgi apparatus to plasma membrane i. Centrosomes & Centrioles ­centrosome: where microtubules grow out of ­near nucleus ­centrioles: within centrosome; composed of 9 sets of triplet  microtubules in a ring shape ii. Cilia & Flagella ­flagella & cilia: microtubule­containing extensions that project  from some cells ­flagella undulate like a fish tail ­cilia work like oars w/ alt. power & recovery strokes ­cilia can be signal­receiving “antenna”  ­motile will have nine doublets of microtubules in a ring shape w/  2 single microtubules in center ­ “9+2” ­non­motile will have “9+0” ­basal body: what cilia/flagella are anchored by; struct. similar to  centriole ­ “9+0” like a centriole  ­sperm flagellum becomes centriole when entering the egg ­dyeins: large motor proteins that bend the flagella & motile cilia ­attached along outer microtubule doublet ­2 “feet” that “walk” along microtubule of adjacent doublet ­using ATP b. Microfilaments (Actin Filaments) ­microfilaments: thin solid rods built by actin ­actin: globular protein ­twisted double chai of actin subunits ­like microtubules, present in all eukaryotic cells ­NOT compression­resisting like microtubule but tension bearing ­cortical microfilaments = support cell shape ­cortex: outer cytoplasmic layer of cell ­shaped by cortical microfila. to be semisolid consistency of gel ­myosin: protein that makes up actin filaments & thicker filaments  ­interaction causes contraction of muscle cells ­pseudopodia: extending cellular extensions that allow cell to crawl along  a surface ­cytoplasmic streaming: circular flow of cytoplasm within cells ­actin­myosin interactions contribute c. Intermediate Filaments ­intermediate filaments: named for diameter; only found in cells of some  animals (ex. vertebrates) ­specialized for bearing tension ­each constructed from family of proteins who include keratins ­more permanent than microfilaments & microtubules ­persist even after cell death ­especially sturdy for reinforcing shape of a cell & position of organelles ­ex. nucleus sits in cage of intermediate filaments End of Chapter 6 Qs 1. Which structure is not part of the endomembrane system? A. Nuclear envelope C. Golgi apparatus B. Chloroplast D. Plasma membrane 2. Which structure is common to plant and animal cells? A. Chloroplast C. Mitochondrion B. Central vacuole  D. Centriole 3. Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell? A. Mitochondrion C. Nuclear envelope B. Ribosome Chloroplasts 6.  What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell? A. Golgi→  ER  →  Lysosome B. Nucleus→  ER →  Golgi C. ER →  Golgi →  vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane D. ER →  Lysossome →  vessicels that fuse with plasma membrane 7. Which cell would be best for studying lysosomes? A. Muscle Cell B. Nerve Cell  C. Phagocytic White Blood Cell D. Bacterial Cell


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