Nutrition 401 Chapter 4 and 5
Nutrition 401 Chapter 4 and 5 401
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madi Gilmartin on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 401 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Megan Kelley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Health Behavior in Nutrition at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Page 1 of 7 Chapter 4 and 5 Notes NUTR 401 Needs Assessment a process of identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing needs of a priority population aka community analysis, community diagnosis, community assessment may be the most critical step in planning provides objective data to: a. define important health problems b. set priorities for program implementation c. establish a baseline for evaluating program impact ex: Lancaster county community health profile different than a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) A. assess the possible impact of a program, policy, or project on the health of a population example: HIA of House Ordinance Why Conduct a Needs Assessment? logical place to start helps insure appropriate use of planning resources can help determine internal capacity of a community to address specific needs develop a focus for an intervention a reference point for future assessments Needs Assessment Process 1. determine purpose and scope how extensive/ what methods involvement of population 2. gather data relevant data those most applicable quantitative/qualitative secondary data already exists, limitations, cost, and availability primary data to fill data gaps; costs to create Page 2 of 7 desirable to have both primary and secondary but not always possible 3. analyze data analyze (formal vs informal) identify and prioritize health problems prioritize the problems a. important? b. changeable? c. resources? most difficult step to complete sometimes 4. identify risk facts linked to health program genetic behavioral environmental 5. identifying the program focus predisposing factors ex: french fries count as veggies enabling factors ex: socioeconomic status, grocery store that offers vegetables or not reinforcing factors ex: messages on tv existing programs? 6. Validating the prioritized needs confirm steps followed properly recheck results focus groups 2nd opinion What to assess who is the priority population Page 3 of 7 what are the needs of the priority population which subgroups within the priority population have the greatest need where are these subgroups located geographically what is currently being done to resolve identified needs how well have the identified needs been addressed in the past Types of data Primary new, original data that did not exist before more expensive and time consuming requires technical expertise Secondary data already collected by someone else and available for your use data may be old data may not have been correctly collected data may not exist Data collection methods single step (single contact) or crosssectional surveys ( point in time) multistep survey (delphi technique) a. series of mailed questionnaires that become more specific based on responses example: 1st round: what is the biggest health problem in your community? what do you think should be done to fix it? 2nd round: what can we do to fix these problems? community forum: town hall meeting moderated and recorded, members of priority population can share thoughts meetings smaller than group town hall focus group Page 4 of 7 usually 812 people, more indepth on feelings, perceptions, beliefs, etc. nominal group process structure process, 57 experts, responses are recorded and prioritized observation windshield/ walkthrough tour, photo voice self assessments health risk, health status, lifestyle, wellness, health behavior asking for their response/ more subjective Secondary Data collection data collected by government agencies US census Behavioral risk surveillance system data from nongovernmental agencies and organizations environmental data and statistics data from existing records data from literature data online Measurement the process of assigning numbers or labels to objects, events, or people according to a particular set of rules that is.. specifying what needs to be measured deciding on the numbers or labels to use creating rules for assigning numbers or labels types: Quantitative numerical data Qualitative in the language of the participants (words) Page 5 of 7 Levels of Measurement Nominal categorical (names), mutually exclusive, exhaustive, no particular value or order ex: smoker/nonsmoker, type of car, hair color Ordinal categorical, rank ordered, show sequence only, cannot measure distance between categories, exhaustive ex: Likert scale, place in a race Interval no absolute zero, intervals are evenly spaced ex: fahrenheit Ratio: absolute zero ex: height, weight, degrees Kelvin Types of Measures Demographic variables (age, sex) Awareness Cognitive knowledge variables Bloom’s taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, analysis, synthesis, evaluation) Psychosocial attitudes, beliefs Skill: ability to perform Behavior ex: exercise environmental: access to care health: number of health problems quality of life: process preference for leaning methods or program involvement Desirable Characteristics of Data Psychometric qualities: 1. reliability consistency in the measurement process reliably produces the same results 2. Validity measures what it is intended to measure Page 6 of 7 correctly measuring concepts under investigation 3. Fairness is appropriate for individuals of various ethnic groups with different backgrounds, gender, educational levels, etc. * Cultural Background plays a part* culturally competent to understand and respect values, attitudes, beliefs, and mores that differ across cultures, and to consider and respond appropriately to these differences in planning, implementing, and evaluating 4. UnbiaSed biased data are distorted data: often caused by the way they are collected Existing Measurement Instrument Is there another instrument already available? can save time and costs, but may not be appropriate or relevant Steps in evaluating an existing instrument: identify possible instruments obtain it is it the right one? take care of logistics create a new instrument only if another cannot be found or adapted Sampling Design Sampling a process by which a part is taken as a representative of the whole Careful definition of the survey population selection of a sample from the survey population (use probability or non probability methods) observation or measurement of the variable in the sample population (data collection) Pilot Testing (aka pilot study) a set of procedures used by planners/ evaluators to try out various processes during program development on a small group of subjects prior to field study used to identify problems with: a. measurement instruments b. data collection procedure s c. data analysis Page 7 of 7 d. materials e. strategies f. sometimes to establish validity and reliability 1. Preliminary review with colleagues, not priority population 2. prepilot small 56 priority population 3. pilot test 2550 from priority 4. field study combines all materials previously tested into complete program Ethical Issues HIPAA Voluntary not coerces right to discontinue private and sensitive data must be protected report results must be respectful illegal acts during data collection
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