Week_One_Notes.pdf Psychology 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yanzhen (Janet) Pang on Wednesday September 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 100 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Dr. Eric Leshikar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 741 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 09/21/16
Week 1 Notes (September 19 – 25 ) th th Chapter 12 Part 1: Social Psychology Know the terms!!! Social Psychology - the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, influence and are influenced by others. Social Cognition - Mental processes associated with people's perceptions of, and reactions to, others. Self-Concept - Thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about who you are and what characteristics describe you Self-esteem - Evaluations we make about our characteristics and worth Social Comparison - We build our sense of self through comparing ourselves to other people o Temporal Comparison - Comparing who you are now to who you were in the past o Social Comparison - Comparing yourself to others Reference Groups - whom you compare yourself to Downward Social Comparison- Choosing to compare oneself to someone that's not as good (protect and enhances self-esteem) Upward Social Comparison - Choosing to compare oneself to someone who is better (can either create optimism or lead to relative deprivation) Social Perception - process of learning about others by drawing inferences/ developing mental representations of others o Attribution - The process people go through to explain the causes of certain behaviors o Fundamental Attribution Error - People tend to attribute the behavior of others to internal factors (characteristic of the person rather than situational conditions) o Actor-Observer Effect - Attributing other's behavior to internal factors and your own to external factors. o Self-Serving Bias - Attributing your successes to internal factors and negative outcomes to external factors o First Impression - A quickly formed judgement about someone else o Self-fulfilling prophecy - Process where our expectations about another person cause others to act the way we expect them to act Attitudes - tendency to think or feel positively or negatively towards something Changing Attitudes: o Mere-exposure effect - simply repeated exposure makes you more likely to view something positively Cognitive Dissonance Theory - attitude change comes from reducing tension associated by inconsistent thoughts Chapter 12 Part 2: Know the terms!!! Norms - learned rules about what people should and shouldn't do in certain situations Social Influence - A person's behavior is affected by the words and actions of other people Motivation related to Presentation of Others o Social Facilitation - Presence of other people improve performance o Social Impairment - Presence of other people impairs performance o Social Loafing - Exerting less effort when in a group than when alone Conformity - When someone changes behavior without being asked o Public Conformity - Give an answer because it's socially appropriate o Private Acceptance - belief that the group is right o Factors that influence conformity - Size of the Majority - unanimity and number of people Minority Influence - minority alters majority's view Compliance - When someone changes behavior due to an explicit request o Foot in the Door - small favors lead to larger ones Obedience - When someone changes behavior due to an explicit request by an authority figure Inducing compliance o Foot in the door: asking small favors that lead up to a big one o Door in the face: asking for something big at first with the intent of getting denied, and asking for something smaller which is what you wanted in the first place o Low Ball Approach: asking for something small and then adding more requests Factors that affect obedience o Status of Authority Figure o Presence of other people who disobey o Characteristics of participants Roles influence behaviors as well o A set of behaviors expected from a person while in a specific context Altruism: selfless concern for another person o Linked to helping behavior o Bystander Effect As the number of people watching goes up, the number of people who will help will go down Chapter 13 Know the terms!!! Personality o Unique thoughts, feelings and actions that characterize a person o Can be used to compare people Trait Approach o People can be understood through the personality traits they exhibit in different situations over time o Traits are consistent and predictable, and every person’s traits will vary o Three trait models Allport’s Trait Theory Central Traits and Secondary Traits o Central traits are publicly apparent and control behavior in most situations Reliable, distractible, etc. o Secondary traits are specific to situations and control less behavior Hates crowds, nervous giving talks, etc. o Big Five Model Says there are 5 basic components of personality Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism o Biological Models Assessing Personality o Observation o Interviews o Personality Tests Objective Non-projective Direct questions, quantitatively scored Advantages: Efficient and standardized Disadvantages: Can be deliberately distorted Gives a quantitative measure of a personality characteristic Projective Test made of unstructured stimuli Advantages: “correct” answers not obvious, designed to observe unconscious desires, flexible use Disadvantages: Lower reliability and validity than objective tests Ex: Rorschach Inkblot Test Subjective interpretation of answers that reveal a person’s personality Psychodynamic Approach: Sigmund Freud o Believed two forces shaped personality Basic drives Past psychological events Personality would result from how these urges were dealt with o His theory was that personality is based on unconscious conflicts o Id: unconscious portion of personality First part to develop Two driving instincts Libido Death Instinct Operates on the pleasure principle o Superego: moral compass o Ego: Responsible for satisfying the demands of the Id and the real world Operates on the “reality principle” Compromise o Ego prevents anxiety and guilt Resorts to defense mechanisms Repression o Unconsciously pushing threatening memories, urges, ideas from consciousness Rationalization o To make actions seem reasonable Projection o Unconsciously attributing one’s own thoughts or impulses onto someone else Reaction formation o Defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite to them Sublimation o Converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions Displacement o Taking an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one Denial o Denying the existence of threatening impulses Compensation o Striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears